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  • Author or Editor: Frances F. Shofer x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess associations between epidemiologic and laboratory variables and calciotropic hormones in cats with odontoclastic resorptive lesions (ORLs).

Animals—182 client-owned cats older than 1 year of age with oral disease.

Procedure—Information on medical history, behavior, living environment, and feeding management was assessed by use of a questionnaire. After induction of general anesthesia, oral examination was performed following standardized protocols and included dental probing and full-mouth radiography. Laboratory analyses included evaluation of FeLV-FIV status, serum biochemical analyses, CBC, urinalysis, and serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), free thyroxine (fT4), and ionized calcium (iCa).

Results—ORLs were identified in 72.5% of cats. Mandibular third premolars were the most commonly affected teeth. Cats with ORLs were significantly older (mean, 9.2 years) than cats without ORLs (mean, 6.6 years). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 25-OHD, urine specific gravity, jaw-opening reflex on probing, and missing teeth were significant variables, even after accounting for age. Cats with ORLs had significantly higher mean serum concentration of 25-OHD (112.4 nmol/L) and significantly lower mean urine specific gravity (1.0263), compared with cats without ORLs (89.8 nmol/L and 1.0366, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not indicate associations between iPTH, PTHrP, or fT4 and development of ORLs. In affected cats, the importance of high serum 25-OHD and low urine specific gravity has not been determined. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1446–1452)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome of and prognostic indicators for dogs and cats with pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs and 11 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats with radiographic evidence of pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, previous medical problems, initial complaint, duration of illness, physical examination findings, radiographic findings, laboratory abnormalities, abdominocentesis results, bacterial culture results, concurrent diseases, hospitalization time, and outcome. Abdominal radiographs were reviewed, and radiographic severity of pneumoperitoneum was classified. For those animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy, time from admission to surgery and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens were recorded.

Results—24 (44%) animals survived and were discharged from the hospital, but none of the variables examined was associated with whether animals survived. Rupture of the gastrointestinal tract was the cause of pneumoperitoneum in 40 animals. However, cause and location of gastrointestinal tract rupture was not associated with whether animals survived. Twenty-three of 40 (58%) animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy survived, compared with only 1 of 14 animals that did not undergo surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats without any history of penetrating trauma is most commonly associated with rupture of the gastrointestinal tract and requires immediate surgical intervention. Even when appropriate treatment is instituted, the shortterm prognosis is only fair. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:251–255)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO) and osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.

Procedure—In each of 24 sex- and size-matched pairs fed the same diet, a restricted-fed dog was fed 25% less than a control dog for life. The dogs' hips were evaluated in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic projection at 16, 30, and 52 weeks of age and then yearly for life. Histologic examination of hip joint tissues was performed on 45 dogs.

Results—Median age at death was 11.2 years. Adjusting for feeding group, dogs with a CCO were 3.7 times as likely to develop radiographic signs of osteoarthritis than those without a CCO. Stratified by diet, 100% of the control dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis and 55% of restricted-fed dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. The CCO was the first radiographic change seen in 22 of 29 (76%) dogs with osteoarthritis. Overall, 35 of 37 (95%) dogs with a CCO had histopathologic lesions of osteoarthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate a relationship between a CCO on the femoral neck and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis in Labrador Retrievers evaluated over their life span. A CCO is an important early radiographic indication of osteoarthritis associated with canine hip dysplasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:233–237)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between a circumferential femoral head osteophyte (CFHO) and osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia, and to ascertain whether CFHO, like osteoarthritis, varies between diet-restricted and control-fed dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs were paired by size, sex, and litter and assigned to 1 of 2 equal groups at 2 months of age. The control-fed group was fed ad libitum, and the diet-restricted group was fed 25% less on a pairwise basis of the same diet for life. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed yearly for life. Each radiograph was evaluated for radiographic signs of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia and for the presence and severity of a CFHO.

Results—41 of the 48 (85.4%) dogs had a CFHO, which was detected at a median age of 5.4 years, and 33 of those 41 (80.5%) developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Nineteen (79.2%) dogs in the diet-restricted group and 22 (91.7%) in the control-fed group had a CFHO at a median age of 9 and 3 years, respectively. Of the dogs with a CFHO, 12 (63.2%) in the diet-restricted group and 20 (90.0%) in the control-fed group developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia at a median age of 11 and 6.5 years, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated a relationship between the CFHO and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. If a CFHO is present in Labrador Retrievers, it might be considered an early indicator of osteoarthritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of diet restriction on development of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.

Procedures—Forty-eight 6-week-old puppies from 7 litters were paired with littermates by sex and weight, and each pairmate was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups of 24 dogs each. Starting at 8 weeks of age, 1 group was fed ad libitum (control fed) and the other was fed 25% less (restricted fed) of the same diet for life on a pairwise basis. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended view at multiple intervals prior to 1 year of age and at annual intervals thereafter on the basis of birth anniversary. A board-certified radiologist unaware of group assignment scored the radiographs for evidence of osteoarthritis.

Results—Prevalence of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in all dogs increased linearly throughout the study, from an overall prevalence of 15% at 2 years to 67% by 14 years. Restricted-fed dogs had lower prevalence and later onset of hip joint osteoarthritis. Median age at first identification of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis was significantly lower in the control-fed group (6 years), compared with the restricted-fed group (12 years).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Restricted feeding delayed or prevented development of radiographic signs of hip joint osteoarthritis in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Lifetime maintenance of 25% diet restriction delayed onset and reduced severity of hip joint osteoarthritis, thus favorably affecting both duration and quality of life. In addition, the data indicated that development of hip joint osteoarthritis was not bimodal in these dogs but occurred as a continuum throughout life.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association