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  • Author or Editor: Frédéric R. Snaps x
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Objective—To determine the detailed computed tomography (CT) anatomy of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in healthy horses.

Sample Population—10 cadaveric forelimbs from 10 adult horses without orthopedic disease.

Procedures—CT of the MCP joint was performed on 4 forelimbs. In 1 of the limbs, CT was also performed after intra-articular injection of 30 mL of contrast medium (40 mg of iodine/mL). Transverse slices 1-mm thick were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted with a slice thickness of 2 mm. The CT images were matched with corresponding anatomic slices from 6 additional forelimbs.

Results—The third metacarpal bone, proximal sesamoid bones, and proximal phalanx could be clearly visualized. Common digital extensor tendon; accessory digital extensor tendon; lateral digital extensor tendon; superficial digital flexor tendon (including manica flexoria); deep digital flexor tendon; branches of the suspensory ligament (including its attachment); extensor branches of the suspensory ligament; collateral ligaments; straight, oblique, and cruciate distal sesamoidean ligaments; intersesamoidean ligament; annular ligament; and joint capsule could be seen. Collateral sesamoidean ligaments and short distal sesamoidean ligaments could be localized but not at all times clearly identified, whereas the metacarpointersesamoidean ligament could not be identified. The cartilage of the MCP joint could be assessed on the postcontrast sequence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT of the equine MCP joint can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine MCP joint.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare the values of the urodynamic parameters of the lower portion of the urinary tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and determine possible functional or anatomic modifications of the lower portion of the urinary tract associated with those phases.

Animals—7 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed in each dog during proestrus; estrus; early, mid, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths (UFPL and UAPL, respectively), integrated pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.

Results—For all measurements, significant interindividual variation was detected. Integrated and threshold pressures, APL, and each morphometric value significantly increased from late anestrus to proestrus. Compared with other phases, MUP, MUCP, and integrated pressure values were significantly lower in estrus and early diestrus; UAPL and UFPL values were significantly lower in late diestrus. At each cycle phase in old dogs, MUP, MUCP, threshold pressure, and vaginal length and width were significantly lower (except in proestrus for vaginal measurements) and threshold volume and compliance values were significantly higher, compared with middle-aged dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urodynamic and morphometric measurements of the lower portion of the urogenital tract are affected by the changes in hormonal balance that occur during the estrous cycle. In sexually intact female dogs, estrous phase determination is important for the interpretation of urodynamic data. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1075–1083)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objectives—To compare retrograde filling cystometry at infusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 mL/min with diuresis cystometry for determination of an appropriate infusion rate and to confirm the reproducibility of measurements obtained by urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) and cystometry in female Beagles.

Animals—6 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Successive UPP and cystometry were performed by use of a water perfusion catheter on dogs anesthetized with propofol. Dogs randomly underwent each of the following at 1-week intervals: retrograde filling cystometry at 5, 10, and 20 mL/min, and diuresis cystometry. The maximum urethral pressure and closure pressure, functional and anatomic profile lengths, threshold pressure, threshold volume, and compliance were measured.

Results—For each UPP variable, significant differences were found among dogs, but no significant differences were found in intra- or interstudy measurements for individual dogs. For retrograde filling cystometry, threshold pressure was not significantly different between a 5 and 10 mL/min infusion rate. Threshold pressure was significantly higher during retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min, compared with 5 and 10 mL/min, and was associated with bladder wall damages. Threshold pressure was significantly lower during diuresis cystometry, compared with retrograde filling cystometries. Threshold volume and compliance were not significantly different among retrograde filling cystometries but were significantly higher during diuresis cystometry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min leads to unacceptable sudden increase in threshold bladder pressure. Retrograde filling cystometry at 10 mL/min can be recommended in a clinical setting, shortening the anesthesia time. However, diuresis cystometry approximates physiologic bladder filling most accurately. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:574–579)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the precision, reproducibility, and clinical usefulness of measuring the Norberg angle (NA) by means of a computerized system of image analysis.

Sample Population—1,182 consecutive radiographs of hip joints of various breeds of dogs assessed for hip dysplasia and 72 radiographs of hip joints of German Shepherd Dogs.

Procedures—Radiographs were assessed by a panel of 4 experts in consensus, and NAs were measured by means of a computerized system. Results of classification of hip dysplasia according to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) and NAs were compared within dogs and among breeds.

Results—Measurement of the NA by means of image analysis was twice as reproducible as that via calipers. Mean NA of left hip joints was 0.38° higher than that of right hip joints. The NA values accurately discriminated between hip joints of dogs without or with hip dysplasia, provided the values were also expressed as percentile rank based on the cumulative frequency distribution of NAs within the breed, and had good power to discriminate among various FCI classifications of hip joints. Mean NA for each dog breed as calculated by use of the lower of 2 NAs for each dog was highly variable and was moderately correlated with the existence of hip dysplasia (r = 0.5).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computer-assisted measurement of the NA was useful in assessing hip joint quality and can be implemented for quality control and standardization of the FCI classification and for international comparisons.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare the urodynamic and morphologic effects of the administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine on the lower portion of the urogenital tract in female dogs.

Animals—3 sexually intact and 3 spayed female Beagles without urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Dogs received estriol (2 mg, PO) once daily for 7 days followed by estriol (2 mg, PO) and phenylpropanolamine (1.5 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 7 days. Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed before treatment (day 0) and at days 7 and 14. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP) and closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths, integrated pressure (IP), plateau, distance before MUP, maximum meatus pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.

Results—Before treatment, no urodynamic differences were observed between the 2 groups; however, vaginal length and width were significantly shorter in spayed dogs. Compared with day 0 values, estriol treatment significantly increased MUP, MUCP, and IP values at day 7, but at day 14, this effect decreased despite phenylpropanolamine administration. No morphologic changes from baseline were detected after either treatment in any dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that estriol mainly acts on the urethral sphincter mechanism by increasing urethral resistance in sexually intact and spayed female dogs without urinary incontinence. Administration of estriol and phenylpropanolamine did not increase the urethral resistance more than estriol alone. The urodynamic effects of estriol in female dogs with urinary incontinence remain to be elucidated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and rhinoscopic features of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of chronic nasal disease; the diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was made on the basis of positive results for at least 2 diagnostic tests (serology, cytology, histology, or fungal culture) and detection of typical intrasinusal and intranasal fungal colonies and turbinate destruction via rhinoscopy. Radiography, MRI, and CT were performed under general anesthesia. Rhinoscopy was repeated to evaluate lesions and initiate treatment. Findings of radiography, MRI, CT, and rhinoscopy were compared.

Results—MRI and CT revealed lesions suggestive of nasal aspergillosis more frequently than did radiography. Computed tomography was the best technique for detection of cortical bone lesions; the nature of abnormal soft tissue, however, could not be identified. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed evaluation of lesions of the frontal bone and was especially useful for differentiating between a thickened mucosa and secretions or fungal colonies; however, fungal colonies could not be differentiated from secretions. Rhinoscopy allowed identification of the nature of intranasal and intrasinusal soft tissue but was not as useful as CT and MRI for defining the extent of lesions and provided no information regarding bone lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The value of CT and MRI for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was similar and greater than that of radiography. Rhinoscopy is necessary because it is the only technique that allows direct visualization of fungal colonies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1703–1712)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association