Objective—To determine the detailed computed tomography (CT) anatomy of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in healthy horses.
Sample Population—10 cadaveric forelimbs from 10 adult horses without orthopedic disease.
Procedures—CT of the MCP joint was performed on 4 forelimbs. In 1 of the limbs, CT was also performed after intra-articular injection of 30 mL of contrast medium (40 mg of iodine/mL). Transverse slices 1-mm thick were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted with a slice thickness of 2 mm. The CT images were matched with corresponding anatomic slices from 6 additional forelimbs.
Results—The third metacarpal bone, proximal sesamoid bones, and proximal phalanx could be clearly visualized. Common digital extensor tendon; accessory digital extensor tendon; lateral digital extensor tendon; superficial digital flexor tendon (including manica flexoria); deep digital flexor tendon; branches of the suspensory ligament (including its attachment); extensor branches of the suspensory ligament; collateral ligaments; straight, oblique, and cruciate distal sesamoidean ligaments; intersesamoidean ligament; annular ligament; and joint capsule could be seen. Collateral sesamoidean ligaments and short distal sesamoidean ligaments could be localized but not at all times clearly identified, whereas the metacarpointersesamoidean ligament could not be identified. The cartilage of the MCP joint could be assessed on the postcontrast sequence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT of the equine MCP joint can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine MCP joint.
Objective—To compare the values of the urodynamic
parameters of the lower portion of the urinary
tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during
the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and determine
possible functional or anatomic modifications of
the lower portion of the urinary tract associated with
Animals—7 adult female Beagles.
Procedure—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis
cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed
in each dog during proestrus; estrus; early,
mid, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus. The
maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral
closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and
anatomic profile lengths (UFPL and UAPL, respectively),
integrated pressure, threshold pressure,
threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and
vaginal length and width were measured.
Results—For all measurements, significant interindividual
variation was detected. Integrated and threshold
pressures, APL, and each morphometric value significantly
increased from late anestrus to proestrus.
Compared with other phases, MUP, MUCP, and integrated
pressure values were significantly lower in
estrus and early diestrus; UAPL and UFPL values
were significantly lower in late diestrus. At each cycle
phase in old dogs, MUP, MUCP, threshold pressure,
and vaginal length and width were significantly lower
(except in proestrus for vaginal measurements) and
threshold volume and compliance values were significantly
higher, compared with middle-aged dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urodynamic
and morphometric measurements of the lower portion
of the urogenital tract are affected by the changes
in hormonal balance that occur during the estrous
cycle. In sexually intact female dogs, estrous phase
determination is important for the interpretation of
urodynamic data. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1075–1083)
Objectives—To compare retrograde filling cystometry
at infusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 mL/min with
diuresis cystometry for determination of an appropriate
infusion rate and to confirm the reproducibility of
measurements obtained by urethral pressure profilometry
(UPP) and cystometry in female Beagles.
Animals—6 adult female Beagles.
Procedure—Successive UPP and cystometry were
performed by use of a water perfusion catheter on
dogs anesthetized with propofol. Dogs randomly
underwent each of the following at 1-week intervals:
retrograde filling cystometry at 5, 10, and 20 mL/min,
and diuresis cystometry. The maximum urethral pressure
and closure pressure, functional and anatomic
profile lengths, threshold pressure, threshold volume,
and compliance were measured.
Results—For each UPP variable, significant differences
were found among dogs, but no significant differences
were found in intra- or interstudy measurements
for individual dogs. For retrograde filling cystometry,
threshold pressure was not significantly different
between a 5 and 10 mL/min infusion rate.
Threshold pressure was significantly higher during
retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min, compared
with 5 and 10 mL/min, and was associated with bladder
wall damages. Threshold pressure was significantly
lower during diuresis cystometry, compared
with retrograde filling cystometries. Threshold volume
and compliance were not significantly different
among retrograde filling cystometries but were significantly
higher during diuresis cystometry.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrograde
filling cystometry at 20 mL/min leads to unacceptable
sudden increase in threshold bladder pressure.
Retrograde filling cystometry at 10 mL/min can be
recommended in a clinical setting, shortening the
anesthesia time. However, diuresis cystometry
approximates physiologic bladder filling most accurately.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:574–579)
Objective—To evaluate the precision, reproducibility, and clinical usefulness of measuring the Norberg angle (NA) by means of a computerized system of image analysis.
Sample Population—1,182 consecutive radiographs of hip joints of various breeds of dogs assessed for hip dysplasia and 72 radiographs of hip joints of German Shepherd Dogs.
Procedures—Radiographs were assessed by a panel of 4 experts in consensus, and NAs were measured by means of a computerized system. Results of classification of hip dysplasia according to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) and NAs were compared within dogs and among breeds.
Results—Measurement of the NA by means of image analysis was twice as reproducible as that via calipers. Mean NA of left hip joints was 0.38° higher than that of right hip joints. The NA values accurately discriminated between hip joints of dogs without or with hip dysplasia, provided the values were also expressed as percentile rank based on the cumulative frequency distribution of NAs within the breed, and had good power to discriminate among various FCI classifications of hip joints. Mean NA for each dog breed as calculated by use of the lower of 2 NAs for each dog was highly variable and was moderately correlated with the existence of hip dysplasia (r = 0.5).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computer-assisted measurement of the NA was useful in assessing hip joint quality and can be implemented for quality control and standardization of the FCI classification and for international comparisons.
Objective—To compare the urodynamic and morphologic effects of the administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine on the lower portion of the urogenital tract in female dogs.
Animals—3 sexually intact and 3 spayed female Beagles without urinary incontinence.
Procedure—Dogs received estriol (2 mg, PO) once daily for 7 days followed by estriol (2 mg, PO) and phenylpropanolamine (1.5 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 7 days. Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed before treatment (day 0) and at days 7 and 14. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP) and closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths, integrated pressure (IP), plateau, distance before MUP, maximum meatus pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.
Results—Before treatment, no urodynamic differences were observed between the 2 groups; however, vaginal length and width were significantly shorter in spayed dogs. Compared with day 0 values, estriol treatment significantly increased MUP, MUCP, and IP values at day 7, but at day 14, this effect decreased despite phenylpropanolamine administration. No morphologic changes from baseline were detected after either treatment in any dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that estriol mainly acts on the urethral sphincter mechanism by increasing urethral resistance in sexually intact and spayed female dogs without urinary incontinence. Administration of estriol and phenylpropanolamine did not increase the urethral resistance more than estriol alone. The urodynamic effects of estriol in female dogs with urinary incontinence remain to be elucidated.
Objective—To determine radiographic, magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT),
and rhinoscopic features of nasal aspergillosis in
Animals—15 client-owned dogs.
Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of chronic
nasal disease; the diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was
made on the basis of positive results for at least 2
diagnostic tests (serology, cytology, histology, or fungal
culture) and detection of typical intrasinusal and
intranasal fungal colonies and turbinate destruction
via rhinoscopy. Radiography, MRI, and CT were performed
under general anesthesia. Rhinoscopy was
repeated to evaluate lesions and initiate treatment.
Findings of radiography, MRI, CT, and rhinoscopy
Results—MRI and CT revealed lesions suggestive of
nasal aspergillosis more frequently than did radiography.
Computed tomography was the best technique for
detection of cortical bone lesions; the nature of abnormal
soft tissue, however, could not be identified.
Magnetic resonance imaging allowed evaluation of
lesions of the frontal bone and was especially useful for
differentiating between a thickened mucosa and secretions
or fungal colonies; however, fungal colonies could
not be differentiated from secretions. Rhinoscopy
allowed identification of the nature of intranasal and
intrasinusal soft tissue but was not as useful as CT and
MRI for defining the extent of lesions and provided no
information regarding bone lesions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The value of
CT and MRI for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was
similar and greater than that of radiography.
Rhinoscopy is necessary because it is the only technique
that allows direct visualization of fungal
colonies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1703–1712)