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  • Author or Editor: Florien Jenner x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe the anatomic and histologic features of the collateral ligaments (CLs) of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in cadaveric limbs obtained from nonlame horses and to compare the histologic findings with the ultrasonographic appearance of the CLs.

Sample—Medial and lateral CLs of the MCP and MTP joints of 28 limbs (16 forelimbs and 12 hind limbs) from 9 adult nonlame horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—26 limbs of 8 horses were examined by ultrasonography immediately after euthanasia. Postmortem gross and histologic examinations were performed for all 28 limbs. Histologic and ultrasonographic images were graded and compared.

Results—Ultrasonographically, the mean ± SD depth and width of the superficial CL were 5.1 ± 0.7 mm and 20.5 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. On histologic examination, only 125 of 319 (39%) specimens obtained from 56 medial and lateral CLs appeared normal. Histopathologic findings varied from mild changes in cellular density and collagen fiber orientation to severe fibrocartilaginous metaplasia. The degree of CL lesion severity increased distally, and the lateral CL was affected more frequently than was the medial CL. Ultrasonographically detectable abnormalities were not correlated with the histologic findings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, histologic abnormalities within the CLs of the MCP and MTP joints may be an adaptive response to joint hyperextension and compression and might predispose horses to desmopathy and ligament failure in the event of trauma. Ultrasonography did not detect morphologic changes of the CL matrix. For an accurate diagnosis of subclinical lesions, more sensitive imaging techniques (eg, MRI) should be considered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses from the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) to the navicular bursa, diffusion is direct or systemic, and addition of sodium hyaluronan has an effect on diffusion in horses.

Animals—11 adult horses without forelimb lameness.

Procedures—1 randomly chosen forelimb DIPJ of each horse received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 20 mg of sodium hyaluronan (group 1), and the contralateral forelimb DIPJ received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 2 mL of lactated Ringer's solution (group 2). Synovial fluid samples were taken from both forelimb navicular bursae and 1 hind limb navicular bursa (systemic control group) at 6 hours. Triamcinolone acetonide concentrations in synovial fluid were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography plus tandem mass spectrometry. Data were logarithmically transformed, and contrast analysis was performed on the 3 groups.

Results—Triamcinolone acetonide was detected in navicular bursal samples in all groups. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly greater concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide than the systemic control group. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Triamcinolone acetonide diffused directly from the DIPJ into the navicular bursa in clinically normal horses, and diffusion was not affected by addition of hyaluronan. Injection into the DIPJ with triamcinolone acetonide or a triamcinolone acetonide–hyaluronan combination can potentially be used for treatment of navicular syndrome, but further studies are needed to determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses similarly in horses with navicular syndrome.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of hydrothermal ablation of articular cartilage for arthrodesis in horses through investigation of the effects of joint lavage with physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (80°C) for various treatment times on chondrocyte viability in the articular cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints of cadaveric horse limbs.

Sample Population—7 pairs of metacarpophalangeal and 8 pairs of metatarsophalangeal joints from 8 Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—The horses were euthanatized for reasons unrelated to musculoskeletal disease. On a random basis, 1 joint of each pair underwent intra-articular lavage for 5, 10, or 15 minutes with heated saline solution (80°C); the other joint underwent sham treatment of similar duration with saline solution at 22°C (control). Cartilage samples from the distal articular surface of metacarpus III (or metatarsus III), the proximal surface of the proximal phalanx, and the lateral and medial proximal sesamoid bones were assessed for chondrocyte viability via confocal microscopy and viability staining following enzymatic digestion.

Results—Compared with the control joints, findings of both viability assays indicated that the percentage of sites containing viable chondrocytes in heat-treated joints was decreased. Treatment hazard ratios of 0.048 (confocal microscopy) and 0.2 (digestion assay) were estimated. Histologically, periarticular soft tissues had minimal detrimental effects after heat treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ex vivo intraarticular lavage with saline solution at 80°C resulted in the death of almost all articular chondrocytes in the joint. This technique may be a satisfactory method for extensive cartilage ablation when performing arthrodesis by minimally invasive techniques. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:36–42)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research