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  • Author or Editor: Flavio D. DeLaCorte x
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Objective—To determine daily variation in urinary clearance and fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes and minerals within and between horses and to compare volumetric and single-sample urine collection for determining FE values of diets with a range of dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB).

Animals—5 Thoroughbred and 6 mixed-breed mares.

Procedure—3 isocaloric diets with low, medium, and high DCAB values (85, 190, and 380 mEq/kg of dry matter, respectively) were each fed for 14 days. Daily blood samples, single urine samples collected by using a urinary catheter (5 mares), and volumetric urine collections (6 mares) were obtained during the last 72 hours of each diet.

Results—Urine and plasma pH values, plasma concentrations, and FE values of sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium were altered by varying the DCAB. Noticeable variation in clearance and FE values was detected within horses from day-to-day on the same diet as well as between horses. Fractional excretion values were not significantly different between single-sample and volumetric methods, except for magnesium in the high DCAB diet. Volumetric and single-sample collections revealed similar patterns of change in urinary FE values with varying DCAB, except for calcium and magnesium.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial variation in clearance and FE of electrolytes and minerals are evident within horses between 24-hour periods as well as between horses fed a specific diet. Three daily urine samples provide similar information regarding dietary-induced changes in clearance and FE values (excluding calcium and magnesium) as that obtained by volumetric urine collection. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:284–291)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether plasma, urine, and fecal electrolyte and mineral concentrations differ between clinically normal horses and Thoroughbreds with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) after consumption of diets varying in cation-anion balance.

Animals—5 Thoroughbred mares with RER and 6 clinically normal mixed-breed mares.

Procedure—Each of 3 isocaloric diets designated as low, medium, and high on the basis of dietary cationanion balance (DCAB) values of 85, 190, and 380, respectively, were fed to horses for 14 days. During the last 72 hours, 3 horses with RER and 3 control horses had daily urine and fecal samples obtained by total 24-hour collection. Remaining horses had urine samples collected daily by single catheterization.

Results—For each diet, no differences existed between horses with RER and control horses in plasma pH, electrolyte concentrations, and creatine kinase activity or in urine pH and renal fractional excretion (FE) values. Plasma pH, strong ion difference, bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations, and base excess decreased and plasma chloride and ionized calcium concentrations increased with decreasing DCAB. Urine pH decreased with decreasing DCAB. The FE of chloride and phosphorus were greatest for horses fed the low diet. The FE values for all electrolytes exept magnesium did not differ between urine samples obtained by single catheterization and total 24-hour collection. Daily balance of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, and potassium did not differ significantly among horses fed the various diets.

Conclusions—In clinically normal horses and in horses with RER, the DCAB strongly affects plasma and urine pH and the FE of sodium, potassium, chloride, and phosphorus. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1053–1060)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research