Objective—To evaluate changes in pH of peritoneal fluid associated with CO2 insufflation during laparoscopy in dogs.
Animals—13 client-owned dogs and 10 purpose-bred teaching dogs.
Procedures—Laparotomy was performed on control dogs; peritoneal fluid pH was mea-sured at time of incision of the abdominal cavity (time 0) and 30 minutes later. Laparoscopic insufflation with CO2 was performed and routine laparoscopic procedures conducted on the teaching dogs. Insufflation pressure was limited to 12 mm Hg. Intraperitoneal fluid pH was measured by use of pH indicator paper at 4 time points. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the same time points.
Results—Peritoneal fluid pH did not change significantly between 0 and 30 minutes in the control dogs. For dogs with CO2 insufflation, measurements obtained were a mean of 8.5, 24.5, 44.5, and 72.0 minutes after insufflation. The pH of peritoneal fluid decreased signifi-cantly between the first (7.825 ± 0.350) and second (7.672 ± 0.366) time point. Blood pH decreased significantly between the first (7.343 ± 0.078), third (7.235 ± 0.042), and fourth (7.225 ± 0.038) time points. The PaCO2 increased significantly between the first (39.9 ± 9.8 mm Hg) and fourth (54.6 ± 4.4 mm Hg) time points. Base excess decreased significantly between the first and all subsequent time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pneumoperitoneum attributable to CO2 insufflation caused a mild and transient decrease in peritoneal fluid pH in dogs. Changes in peritoneal fluid associated with CO2 insufflation in dogs were similar to those in other animals.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 walkway cover types on temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements of dogs during gait analysis with a pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW).
ANIMALS 35 client- and staff-owned dogs (25 nonlame and 10 lame).
PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, all dogs were evaluated at a comfortable walk on a PSW to which 3 cover types (a 0.32-cm-thick corrugated vinyl mat or a 0.32- or 0.64-cm-thick polyvinyl chloride yoga mat) were applied in random order. Temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements were obtained and compared among cover types within the nonlame and lame dog groups.
RESULTS Several variables, including maximum peak pressure, maximum force (absolute and normalized as a percentage of body weight), and vertical impulse (absolute and normalized) differed significantly in most comparisons among cover types for both nonlame and lame dogs. There was no significant difference in maximum force values between the 0.32-cm-thick corrugated vinyl and 0.64-cm-thick polyvinyl chloride cover types for both nonlame and lame dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors’ knowledge, the cover type used during data collection with a PSW is rarely provided in published reports on this topic. The findings in this study suggested that to ensure that PSW data for dogs are collected in a standardized manner, the same cover type should be used during follow-up visits to evaluate clinical outcomes, for the duration of research studies, and at all locations for multi-institutional studies. The cover type should be specified in future PSW studies to allow direct comparisons of findings between studies.
OBJECTIVE To quantitatively measure the amount of pressure induced at the calcaneus and cranial tibial surface of dogs by use of 2 cast configurations.
ANIMALS 13 client- or student-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Pressure sensors were placed over the calcaneus and cranial tibial surface. Dogs then were fitted with a fiberglass cast on a pelvic limb extending from the digits to the stifle joint (tall cast). Pressure induced over the calcaneus and proximal edge of the cast at the level of the cranial tibial surface was simultaneously recorded during ambulation. Subsequently, the cast was shortened to end immediately proximal to the calcaneus (short cast), and data acquisition was repeated. Pressure at the level of the calcaneus and cranial tibial surface for both cast configurations was compared by use of paired t tests.
RESULTS The short cast created significantly greater peak pressure at the level of the calcaneus (mean ± SD, 0.2 ± 0.07 MPa), compared with peak pressure created by the tall cast (0.1 ± 0.06 MPa). Mean pressure at the proximal cranial edge of the cast was significantly greater for the short cast (0.2 ± 0.06 MPa) than for the tall cast (0.04 ± 0.03 MPa).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A cast extended to the level of the proximal portion of the tibia caused less pressure at the level of the calcaneus and the proximal cranial edge of the cast. Reducing the amount of pressure at these locations may minimize the potential for pressure sores and other soft tissue injuries.
Objective—To compare calibration methods for digital radiography in terms of measurement accuracy and interobserver variability.
Sample—Digital radiographic images of a 155-mm-long Steinmann pin.
Procedures—Measurement of pin length on digital radiographs was determined with a 25.4-mm-diameter calibration ball and commercially available software program via 3 calibration methods (ie, no calibration, autocalibration, and manual calibration). Digital radiographs of the calibration ball and pin were obtained with each placed at various vertical heights from the table (7 heights) and horizontal distances from the center of the beam (4 distances). Measurements of pin length on digital radiographs were made by 4 observers who were blinded to the orientation of the calibration ball and pin.
Results—Pin lengths obtained by each calibration method were significantly different from each other and from the true value. Manual calibration was the most accurate. There was no significant interobserver variability in measurements. There was no significant change in measurements when the calibration ball was moved horizontally, but pin length measurements changed significantly when the ball was moved vertically (away from the table) with an approximate magnification error of 1% per centimeter of distance between the calibration ball and pin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For digital radiography, manual calibration is recommended to achieve the most accurate measurements. Ideally, the calibration ball should be placed at the same vertical height as the object to be measured; however, if this cannot be achieved, the magnification error can be expected to be approximately 1% per centimeter of distance.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate accuracy and reliability of 3 novel goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles and compare the results with those obtained with a universal goniometer (UG).
SAMPLE 8 pelvic limbs from 4 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Each limb was secured to a wooden platform at 3 arbitrarily selected fixed stifle joint angles. Goniometry was performed with 2 smartphone-based applications (novel goniometers A and B), a digital goniometer (novel goniometer C), and a UG; 3 evaluators performed measurements in triplicate for each angle with each device. Results were compared with stifle joint angle measurements on radiographs (used as a gold standard). Accuracy was determined by calculation of bias and total error, coefficients of variation were calculated to estimate reliability, and strength of linear association between radiographic and goniometer measurements was assessed by calculation of correlation coefficients.
RESULTS Mean coefficient of variation was lowest for the UG (4.88%), followed by novel goniometers B (7.37%), A (7.57%), and C (12.71%). Correlation with radiographic measurements was highest for the UG (r = 0.97), followed by novel goniometers B (0.93), A (0.90), and C (0.78). Constant bias was present for all devices except novel goniometer B. The UG and novel goniometer A had positive constant bias; novel goniometer C had negative constant bias. Total error at 50° and 100° angles was > 5% for all devices.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE None of the devices accurately represented radiographically measured stifle joint angles. Additional veterinary studies are indicated prior to the use of novel goniometers in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare owner satisfaction between custom-made stifle joint orthoses and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for the management of medium- and large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD).
DESIGN Owner survey.
SAMPLE 819 and 203 owners of dogs with CCLD that were managed with a custom-made stifle joint orthosis or TPLO, respectively.
PROCEDURES Client databases of an orthosis provider and veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed to identify potential survey respondents. An online survey was developed to evaluate owner-reported outcomes, complications, and satisfaction associated with the nonsurgical (orthosis group) and surgical (TPLO group) interventions. Survey responses were compared between groups.
RESULTS The response rate was 25% (203/819) and 37% (76/203) for the orthosis and TPLO groups, respectively. The proportion of owners who reported that their dogs had mild or no lameness and rated the intervention as excellent, very good, or good was significantly greater for the TPLO group than for the orthosis group. However, ≥ 85% of respondents in both groups reported that they would choose the selected treatment again. Of 151 respondents from the orthosis group, 70 (46%) reported skin lesions associated with the device, 16 (11%) reported that the dog subsequently underwent surgery, and 10 (7%) reported that the dog never tolerated the device.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated high owner satisfaction rates for both interventions. Owners considering nonsurgical management with an orthosis should be advised about potential complications such as persistent lameness, skin lesions, patient intolerance of the device, and the need for subsequent surgery.
To use the small data approach of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate the transferability of reference intervals (RIs) for kinetic variables obtained with instrumented gait analysis (IGA) in dogs from an RI-originator laboratory to another laboratory that used the same data acquisition and analytic techniques for IGA in walking dogs.
27 adult client-owned dogs without evidence of lameness.
Dogs were individually walked at their preferred velocity on a pressure-sensing walkway for IGA at the Colorado State University Animal Gait Laboratory (CSU-AGL), and 6 valid trials were analyzed for each dog. The small data approach of the CLSI was then used to evaluate transferability of RIs previously established at the Purdue University Animal Gait Laboratory (PU-AGL). A linear model was used to establish weight-dependent RIs for peak vertical force (PVF).
Results indicated that RIs of dynamic weight distribution (DWD), DWD symmetry index, DWD coefficient of variation, PVF symmetry index, and PVF coefficient of variation were transferable from PU-AGL to CSU-AGL, whereas the weight-dependent RIs for PVF were not. Regression slopes for PVF versus body weight were greater for all limbs in dogs tested at the CSU-AGL, compared with historic results for dogs tested at the PU-AGL.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Use of the small data approach method of the CLSI to validate transference of RIs for IGA kinetic variables in walking dogs was simple and efficient to perform and may help facilitate clinical and research collaborations on gait analysis.
Objective—To identify risk factors for development of excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) in large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD).
Animals—58 dogs with excessive TPAs (ie, TPA ≥ 35°; case dogs) and 58 dogs with normal TPAs (ie, TPA ≤ 30°; control dogs).
Procedures—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed and owners were interviewed to identify potential risk factors for excessive TPA.
Results—Case dogs were 3 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.0) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs. Case dogs with TPA ≥ 35° in both limbs were 13.6 times (95% confidence interval, 2.72 to 68.1) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs with TPA ≤ 30° in both limbs. Case dogs were significantly younger at the onset of hind limb lameness than were control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that early neutering was a significant risk factor for development of excessive TPA in large-breed dogs with CCLD. Further research into the effects of early neutering on TPA and the pathophysiology of CCLD is warranted.