OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on type VII collagen– cleaving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue of extracorporeally perfused equine limbs.
SAMPLE 10 right forelimbs and 3 left forelimbs collected from 10 adult horses after slaughter at a licensed abattoir.
PROCEDURES Extracorporeal perfusion of the isolated equine limbs was performed for 10 hours under physiologic conditions (control-perfused limbs; n = 5) and with the addition of 80 ng of LPS/L of perfusate (LPS-perfused limbs; 5). Lamellar tissue specimens were then collected from the dorsal aspect of the hooves. Additionally, corresponding control specimens were collected from the 3 nonperfused left forelimbs. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with antibodies against total (latent and active) MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, and MMP-9 as well as antibody against active MMP-9. Intensity of immunohistochemical staining was scored, and stain distribution in the lamellar tissue was noted.
RESULTS Staining intensity of total and active MMP-9 was significantly increased in LPS-perfused versus control-perfused limbs. No such difference was identified for MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-8.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Of the 4 MMPs that are capable of degrading type VII collagen, MMP-9 was the only one for which production increased in the lamellar tissue of isolated equine limbs perfused with versus without a clinically relevant concentration of LPS. These results suggested that MMP-9 may be involved in initiation of pathological changes in lamellar tissue in endotoxin-induced laminitis, whereas MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-8 may be less relevant.
Objective—To examine the effect of endotoxins on metabolism and histopathologic changes of isolated perfused equine forelimbs.
Sample—Forelimbs (comprising the metacarpus and digit) were collected from cadavers of 12 healthy adult horses after slaughter at an abattoir (14 limbs; 1 forelimb of 10 horses and both forelimbs of 2 horses).
Procedures—Forelimbs were perfused for 10 hours with autologous blood, with and without the addition of endotoxin (80 ng of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]/L). Two limbs of the endotoxin exposure group and 2 nonperfused limbs were loaded to failure of the suspensory apparatus of the pedal bone to evaluate the effect of body weight. Metabolic and histologic variables were evaluated.
Results—Blood pressure increased during the first hour and did not differ between groups. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was similar in both groups and increased significantly during the 10-hour period; glucose consumption at 5 hours and lactate concentration at 8 hours were significantly higher in limbs exposed to endotoxin. The width of secondary epidermal lamellae was greater in LPS limbs. In the primary dermal lamellae of LPS limbs, there were significantly more vessels with an open lumen and aggregates of intravascular neutrophils.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the blood-perfused isolated forelimbs of equine cadavers, exposure to LPS led to significant changes in the laminar tissue as well as to metabolic changes. Therefore, endotoxin should be considered as a causative factor for laminitis and not merely as a risk factor.
Objective—To determine the effect of short-term hyperinsulinemia on the localization and expression of endothelin receptor (ETR)-A and ETR-B in lamellar tissue of the forelimbs of horses.
Samples—Distal portion of 15 cadaveric forelimbs from healthy adult horses (1 limb/horse) obtained immediately after slaughter at an abattoir.
Procedures—Each forelimb was assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (perfused with autologous blood for 10 hours [control perfusion; n = 5], perfused with an insulin [142 ± 81 μU/mL] perfusate for 10 hours [insulinemic perfusion; 5], or not perfused [unperfused control; 5]). Immunohistochemical evaluation of lamellar tissue was performed to assess localization of ETR-A and ETR-B. Expression of ETR-A and ETR-B was measured semiquantitatively on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = high-intensity staining) and quantitatively by means of gray value analysis with imaging software.
Results—In all specimens, ETR-A and ETR-B were localized in endothelium, smooth muscle cells, axons, and keratinocytes. Quantitative expression of ETR-A in the midportion of the primary epidermal lamellae for the insulinemic perfusion group (149 ± 16) was lower than that for the control perfusion group (158 ± 15). Expression of ETR-B in the primary epidermal lamellae tips for the insulinemic perfusion group (140 ± 29) was higher than that for the control perfusion group (114 ± 8).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperinsulinemia caused significant changes in endothelin receptor expression, which suggested that ETR antagonists might be beneficial for treatment of laminitis in horses.
OBJECTIVE To identify signs of tissue-specific cortisol activity in samples of suspensory ligament (SL) and neck skin tissue from horses with and without pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID).
SAMPLE Suspensory ligament and neck skin tissue samples obtained from 26 euthanized horses with and without PPID.
PROCEDURES Tissue samples were collected from 12 horses with and 14 horses without PPID (controls). Two control horses had received treatment with dexamethasone; data from those horses were not used in statistical analyses. The other 12 control horses were classified as old horses (≥ 14 years old) and young horses (≤ 9 years old). Standard histologic staining, staining for proteoglycan accumulation, and immunostaining of SL and neck skin tissue sections for glucocorticoid receptors, insulin, 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 were performed. Findings for horses with PPID were compared with findings for young and old horses without PPID.
RESULTS Compared with findings for old and young control horses, there were significantly more cells stained for glucocorticoid receptors in SL samples and for 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in SL and skin tissue samples from horses with PPID. Insulin could not be detected in any of the SL or skin tissue samples. Horses with PPID had evidence of SL degeneration with significantly increased proteoglycan accumulation. Neck skin tissue was found to be significantly thinner in PPID-affected horses than in young control horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism may contribute to the SL degeneration associated with PPID in horses.
Objective—To investigate effects of endotoxin on leukocyte activation and infiltration of the laminar tissue in isolated perfused equine limbs.
Sample—10 right forelimbs and 3 left forelimbs collected from 10 healthy adult horses after slaughter at a licensed abattoir.
Procedures—Isolated right forelimbs were randomly assigned to 2 groups (5 forelimbs/group): perfusion of the distal portion for 10 hours with 80 ng of endotoxin/L and perfusion under the same conditions without endotoxin. After perfusion, samples for immunohistochemical detection of leukocytes (by use of antibodies against calprotectin and myeloperoxidase) and transmission electron microscopy were collected from the laminar tissue of the dorsal aspect of the hooves. Additionally, control samples were collected from the 3 nonperfused left forelimbs.
Results—Samples of laminar tissue from the endotoxin perfusion group had significantly higher scores for calprotectin and myeloperoxidase staining than did control samples and samples perfused without endotoxin. Ultrastructural examination revealed endotoxin-induced damage of the epidermal basal cells with loss of cell contacts including hemidesmosomes and anchoring filaments and a resulting separation of parts of the basement membrane. Additionally, local breakdown of the basement membrane was detected at the location of leukocyte adherence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isolated perfused equine limbs, endotoxin at a clinically relevant concentration induced a distinct inflammatory reaction with intravascular and extravascular accumulation of leukocytes in the laminar tissue, similar to that seen during the developmental phase of laminitis. Therefore, endotoxin should be considered as a causative factor for some types of laminitis.