Objective—To assess the usefulness of high-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography for evaluation of changes of skin thickness in relation to hydration status and fluid distribution at various cutaneous sites in dogs.
Animals—10 clinically normal adult dogs (6 males and 4 females) of various breeds.
Procedures—Ultrasonographic examination of the skin was performed before and after hydration via IV administration of an isotonic crystalloid solution (30 mL/kg/h for 30 minutes). A 13-MHz linear-array transducer was used to obtain series of ultrasonographic images at 4 different cutaneous sites (the frontal, sacral, flank, and metatarsal regions). Weight and various clinicopathologic variables (PCV; serum osmolality; and serum total protein, albumin, and sodium concentrations) were determined before and after the infusion. These variables and ultrasonographic measurements of skin thickness before and after hydration were compared.
Results—Among the 10 dogs, mean preinfusion skin thickness ranged from 2,211 μm (metatarsal region) to 3,249 μm (sacral region). Compared with preinfusion values, weight was significantly increased, whereas PCV; serum osmolality; and serum total protein, albumin, and sodium concentrations were significantly decreased after infusion. After infusion, dermal echogenicity decreased and skin thickness increased significantly by 21%, 14%, 15%, and 13% in the frontal, sacral, flank, and metatarsal regions, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cutaneous site and hydration were correlated with cutaneous characteristics and skin thickness determined by use of high-frequency ultrasonography in dogs. Thus, diagnostic ultrasonography may be a useful tool for the noninvasive evaluation of skin hydration in healthy dogs and in dogs with skin edema.
Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of budesonide in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Animals—11 dogs (mean ± SD age, 5.7 ± 3.9 years; various breeds and body weights) with moderate or severe IBD.
Procedures—Each dog received a controlled-release formulation of budesonide (3 mg/m2, PO, q 24 h) for 30 days (first day of administration was day 1). The concentration of budesonide and its metabolite (16-α-hydroxyprednisolone) was measured via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine samples obtained on days 1 and 8 of treatment. On those days, plasma samples were obtained before the daily budesonide administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 7 hours after drug administration, whereas urine samples were obtained after collection of the last blood sample. A clinical evaluation was performed on the dogs before onset of drug administration and on days 20 and 30 after start of drug administration.
Results—The highest plasma concentration of budesonide and 16-α-hydroxyprednisolone on day 1 was detected at 1 hour and at 2 hours after drug administration, respectively. After standardization on the basis of specific gravity, the ratio between urinary concentrations of budesonide and 16-α-hydroxyprednisolone was 0.006 and 0.012 on days 1 and 8, respectively. The clinical response was adequate in 8 of 11 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Budesonide was rapidly absorbed and metabolized in dogs with IBD. The drug gradually accumulated, and there was an adequate therapeutic response and no adverse effects.
OBJECTIVE To explore sources of serum aldosterone concentration variability in a population of healthy and diseased ferrets, determine a preliminary 1 -sided reference interval for serum aldosterone concentration in healthy ferrets, and identify a decision limit to differentiate healthy from diseased ferrets on the basis of serum aldosterone concentration.
DESIGN Prospective threshold definition and diagnostic accuracy study.
ANIMALS 78 healthy (n = 56) and diseased (22) ferrets.
PROCEDURES Serum aldosterone concentrations were measured on consecutively admitted ferrets, and an upper reference limit for aldosterone concentrations was established. Sensitivity and specificity of aldosterone concentration cutoffs to differentiate healthy from diseased ferrets were estimated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
RESULTS Measurements of serum aldosterone concentrations in the ferrets showed wide variability, with a median concentration of 4.75 pg/mL (interquartile range, 0.55 to 17.9 pg/mL; range, 0.02 to 283.9 pg/mL) and 76% (59/78) of samples having concentrations < 18 pg/mL. Ferrets that were healthy, older, or sexually inactive had significantly lower aldosterone concentrations. The upper limit of the reference interval for healthy ferrets was 13.3 pg/mL (90% confidence interval, 9.9 to 16.9 pg/mL). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that an aldosterone concentration cutoff value of 7.6 pg/mL differentiated healthy ferrets from diseased ferrets with a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 73.2% (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that high aldosterone concentrations should not be considered diagnostic of primary hyperaldosteronism in ferrets. A need exists to develop better tests to identify primary hyperaldosteronism.
Objective—To investigate the effects of insulin detemir in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Design—Prospective, uncontrolled clinical trial.
Animals—10 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Dogs were treated with insulin detemir SC every 12 hours for 6 months. Follow-up evaluations were done at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks and included evaluation of clinical signs and measurement of blood glucose concentration curves and serum fructosamine concentrations.
Results—Insulin detemir administration resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose and serum fructosamine concentrations at 6 months, compared with pretreatment values. Median insulin dosage at the end of the study was 0.12 U/kg (0.055 U/lb; range, 0.05 to 0.34 U/kg [0.023 to 0.155 U/lb], SC, q 12 h). Hypoglycemia was identified in 22% (10/45) of the blood glucose concentration curves, and 6 episodes of clinical hypoglycemia in 4 dogs were recorded. A subjective improvement in clinical signs was observed in all dogs during the 6-month study period. On the basis of clinical signs and blood glucose concentration curves, efficacy of insulin detemir at the end of the study was considered good in 5 dogs, moderate in 3, and poor in 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that SC injection of insulin detemir every 12 hours may be a viable treatment for diabetes mellitus in dogs. Insulin detemir dosages were lower than reported dosages of other insulin types needed to maintain glycemic control, suggesting that insulin detemir should be used with caution, especially in small dogs.
To evaluate the performance of 2 assays for measurement of serum fructosamine (SF) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values in dogs and to compare the usefulness of the 2 glycated proteins for assessment of glycemic control in dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Blood samples from 40 healthy dogs, 13 diabetic dogs, and 23 anemic normoglycemic nondiabetic dogs and results of 200 assessments of glycemic control in 46 diabetic dogs.
Colorimetric and immunoturbidimetric methods were used for measurement of SF and HbA1c values, respectively. Linearity and precision were determined. The usefulness of SF and HbA1c values for assessment of glycemic control was evaluated with a clinical scoring method used as the reference standard. Cutoff values obtained from receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify the percentage of dogs correctly categorized by means of SF and HbA1c values.
Mean intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 3.8% and 2.5%, respectively, for the SF assay, and 1.2% and 1.8%, respectively, for the HbA1c assay. Excellent linearity (R > 0.99) was obtained for both assays. Values for SF and HbA1c were inversely correlated (r = −0.40 and −0.33, respectively) with clinical score and correctly indicated glycemic control in 99 of 200 (50%) and 88 of 200 (44%) assessments, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The SF and HbA1c assays were precise, had good linearity, and appeared to be suitable for routine use in veterinary medicine. However, they performed poorly for classifying glycemic control in diabetic dogs.