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Abstract

Objectives—To determine the in vitro effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGF, PGI2; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID; ie, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, carprofen, and phenylbutazone) on contractile activity of the equine dorsal colon, ventral colon, and pelvic flexure circular and longitudinal smooth muscle.

Animals—26 healthy horses.

Procedure—Tissue collected from the ventral colon, dorsal colon, and pelvic flexure was cut into strips and mounted in a tissue bath system where contractile strength was determined. Incremental doses of PGE2, PGF, PGI2, flunixin meglumine, carprofen, ketoprofen, and phenylbutazone were added to the baths, and the contractile activity was recorded for each location and orientation of smooth muscle.

Results—In substance P-stimulated tissues, PGE2 and PGF enhanced contractility in the longitudinal smooth muscle with a decrease or no effect on circular smooth muscle activity. Prostaglandin I2 inhibited the circular smooth muscle response with no effect on the longitudinal muscle. The activity of NSAID was predominantly inhibitory regardless of location or muscle orientation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the equine large intestine, exogenous prostaglandins had a variable effect on contractile activity, depending on the location in the colon and orientation of the smooth muscle. The administration of NSAID inhibited contractility, with flunixin meglumine generally inducing the most profound inhibition relative to the other NSAID evaluated in substance P-stimulated smooth muscle of the large intestine. The results of this study indicate that prolonged use of NSAID may potentially predispose horses to develop gastrointestinal tract stasis and subsequent impaction. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1259–1266)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the vascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas.

Animals—7 adult llamas.

Procedure—Immediately after each llama was euthanatized, vascular replicas of tissue from the third compartment were prepared by use of methylmethacrylate monomer and catalyst. Following chemical removal of tissue, the casts were further prepared for examination via scanning electron microscopy. By use of barium solution, microangiography was also performed on fixed tissue samples; the infused tissue was sectioned and imaged radiographically. Tissue samples were also collected for histologic evaluation after fixation and H&E staining.

Results—The third compartment was supplied by 4 pairs of primary arteries and veins located around the circumference of the structure. From these vessels, smaller arteries and veins branched to supply the serosal surface and penetrated deeper through the tunica muscularis to supply the submucosal and mucosal layers. An extensive capillary network was arranged in a hexagonal array surrounding the gastric glands, such that the mucosal aspect of the replicas had a honeycomb-like appearance. Histologically, variably sized villous projections lined by a single layer of epithelial cells with an extensive glandular network were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The third compartment of the stomach of llamas is a highly vascular structure with an extensive anastomotic capillary network at the luminal surface. Branching vessels provide extensive collateral circulation, and it appears that surgical incisions should heal well. Incisions in the third compartment should be oriented parallel to the longitudinal plane. (Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:346–350)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The vasculature of the jejunum was studied in 6 llamas and 1 alpaca, using a combination of microangiography, standard light microscopy, and vascular cast imaging. The casts were examined by use of scanning electron microscopy and low-power dissecting microscopy. After administration of 40,000 IU of heparin, all animals were euthanatized by administration of an overdose of sodium pentobarbital. Three sections of jejunum and their respective arcuate vessels were isolated from each animal. One section was immediately placed in formalin for later H&E staining. The second and third sections were placed in warm saline solution, and the vasculature was flushed free of all blood by repeated infusions of the solution. Once flushed of all blood, one section was infused with a radio-opaque medium and subsequently evaluated by microangiography, and the remaining section was perfused with a methylmethacrylate polymer for creation of vascular casts.

The arcuate vessels branched into extensive primary and secondary arcades prior to giving rise to the marginal rete. Muscular arteries and small veins left the marginal rete and penetrated the tunica serosa and tunica muscularis to provide nutrients or drain the mesenteric angle, respectively, or entered into the circumferential submucosal network. The primary penetrating vessels in the submucosa formed an extensive submucosal plexus that supplied the tunica serosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica mucosa. The primary penetrating vessels anastomosed with vessels from oral and aboral sections and with their counterparts from the opposite side at the antimesenteric border. Vessels supplied the tunica serosa and tunia muscularis by branching centrifugally from the submucosal plexus supplying the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers parallel to their respective muscle layers. The arterioles supplying the tunica mucosa branched at right angles, penetrated the muscularis mucosa, and gave rise to clusters of arterioles supplying either the villi or the intervening crypts; anastomosis occurred between these 2 systerns toward the base of the villus. The arterioles gradually developed a discontinuous smooth muscle layer as they approached the base of the villus. Each villus was supplied by a single centrally placed metarteriole that spiraled to the tip of the villus, divided, and descended in a fountaining capillary network. The individual capillaries in the cascade coalesced to drain via 2 to 4 venules at the base of the villus. Branches from the venules entered into an anastomosing network in the lamina propria to drain the crypts. Venules drained in the submucosal plexus and continued paralleling the arterial supply toward the mesenteric border and the arcuate veins. The jejunal vasculature of South American camelids contains an extensive set of anastomotic connections at all levels after formation of the arcuate vessels. Within the scope of this examination into the microvasculature of llamas and alpacas, differences were not detected between the individual species.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The microvascular circulation of the descending colon was studied in 5 adult horses, using microangiography and light microscopy combined with gross studies and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas. After heparinization, horses were euthanatized, and 3 segments of the descending colon and its mesentery containing 1 vascular arcade were removed from each horse. The fecal balls were gently massaged from the lumen, and the blood was flushed free of the circulation with isotonic NaCl.

In 5 segments, the vascular system was injected with a modified radiopaque medium and evaluated radiographically. Specimens examined radiographically also were prepared for histologic examination, using standard methods. Ten segments were injected with 1 of 2 types of plastics and studied grossly or by scanning electron microscopy.

Arcuate arteries gave rise to a descending colonic rete that surrounded the vein and supplied numerous descending colonic lymph nodes. The rete also supplied the mesocolon and the descending colonic tissue. Short filamentous vessels arising from the rete directly penetrated the mesenteric tenia to supply an intermuscular plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the muscularis externa. Larger vessels arising from either side of the rete divided into the long- and short-terminal arteries that supplied an extensive submucosal plexus, which was continuous around the circumference. The submucosal plexus supplied the mucosa, the tunica muscularis, and the serosa. Vessels running centrifugally from the submucosal plexus formed an intermuscular plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the muscularis externa. The intermuscular plexus at the mesenteric angle also was supplied by vessels branching from the short-terminal arteries as they penetrated the muscularis externa. At the antimesenteric tenia, the submucosal plexus gave rise to larger vessels that formed a subserosal loop. From this loop, 5 vessels penetrated the longitudinal muscle layer to contribute to the intermuscular plexus. Vessels within the longitudinal and circular muscles of the muscularis externa ran parallel to the muscle fibers and, consequently, perpendicular to each other. Arteries supplying the mucosa penetrated the muscularis mucosa and branched into a capillary network at the base of the descending colonic glands. These capillary networks anastomosed with the networks around adjacent glands at the luminal surface, forming a honeycomb like pattern. Drainage was facilitated by more sparsely distributed venules that united with venules from adjacent areas and descended to the submucosal plexus. These veins were characterized by regular, helical, smooth muscle constrictions.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a customized solution could attenuate the effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion injury of the equine jejunum.

Sample Population—A segment of jejunum obtained from 21 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—A segment of jejunum was maintained in an isolated extracorporeal circuit, and arterial flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 40 minutes (ischemia) followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. In 1 group, a customized solution was infused at a rate of 1 ml/min during low-flow ischemia and 3 ml/min during reperfusion. In a second group, the solution was infused at the same rate during low-flow ischemia, but it was infused at a rate of 7 ml/min during reperfusion. Control groups received lactated Ringer's solution administered at the same rates as for the customized solution. Various metabolic, hemodynamic, histologic, and permeability variables were recorded.

Results—A lower flow rate during reperfusion (3 ml/min) had a beneficial effect, compared with lactated Ringer's solution or the higher flow rate (7 ml/min). Use of the solution at this rate resulted in less histomorphologic injury and reduced mucosal permeability to albumin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a customized solution at a lower flow rate during repurfusion appeared to have a protective effect on equine jejunum when administered IV during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. (Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:1679–1686)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of intraluminal administration of a customized solution during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion in the jejunum of horses.

Sample Population—Segments of jejunum obtained from 13 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—In isolated segments of jejunum maintained in an extracorporeal circuit, arterial flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 40 minutes (ischemia) followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. In 2 groups, a customized solution (concentrations, 12.5 and 25%, respectively) was placed in the lumen prior to lowflow ischemia and maintained during reperfusion. The control group received intraluminal lactated Ringer's solution for the same duration. Various metabolic, hemodynamic, histologic, and permeability variables were recorded.

Results—The 12.5% solution resulted in less histomorphologic injury and reduced mucosal permeability to albumin, compared with the 25% solution and the lactated Ringer's solution. Morphologic injury and permeability were reduced in tissues that received the 25% solution, compared with the control group, but this difference was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a 12.5% customized solution appeared to minimize injury in the isolated extracoporeal jejunal loop, which provides some indication that it might be useful in clinical situations. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1389–1394)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the role of nitric oxide and an apamin-sensitive nonadrenergic noncholingeric inhibitory transmitter on contractility of the ventral colon of horses.

Sample population—Strips of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers and taenia of the ventral colon from 14 horses.

Procedure—Muscle strips were suspended in tissue baths and attached to force transducers. Contractile activity of circular, longitudinal, and taenia muscle strips in response to electrical field stimulation was measured after addition of apamin and a nitric oxide inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME).

Results—Electrical field stimulation reduced contractile activity in the circular muscle layer and taenia but not the longitudinal muscle layer. Addition of L-NAME significantly reduced inhibitory contractile activity at all frequencies for the circular muscle layer, whereas a significant effect was evident for the taenia only at the highest frequency. The combination of L-NAME and apamin resulted in a significant reduction in inhibition of the taenia at all frequencies but for circular muscle only at lower frequencies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nitric oxide and an apamin-sensitive neurotransmitter appear to mediate a component of inhibitory transmission in the circular muscle and taenia, but not the longitudinal muscle layer, of the equine ventral colon. Nitric oxide has a role in regulating contractile activity of the equine ventral colon, and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may be useful in horses with ileus of the large colon. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:64–68)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of 2 cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors on contractile activity of the circular smooth muscle layer of the equine dorsal and ventral colon.

Sample Population—Samples of the dorsal and ventral colon obtained from 10 healthy horses.

Procedure—Full-thickness tissue samples were collected from the dorsal colon in the area of the diaphragmatic flexure and the ventral colon in the area of the sternal flexure. Samples were cut into strips oriented along the fibers of the circular muscle layer and mounted in a tissue bath system for determination of contractile strength. Incremental amounts of etodolac, nabumetone, and indomethacin were added, and contractile activity was recorded.

Results—Response of the dorsal and ventral colon to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was variable. Indomethacin induced the greatest reduction in contractile activity, followed by nabumetone. For etodolac, the difference from baseline values was only significantly reduced at the highest concentration used (1 × 10–5M) for the ventral colon.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The NSAIDs that are designed to target the COX-2 isoform appeared to have variable effects on the contractile activity of the equine dorsal and ventral colon. Etodolac appeared to have the least effect on contractile activity, compared with the effects attributable to nabumetone, and would potentially have the fewest adverse effects relative to motility of the dorsal and ventral colon. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1496–1500)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the in vitro effect of various prostaglandins (PG) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on contractile activity of the large-colon taenia of horses.

Animals

14 healthy horses.

Procedure

The taenia was collected from the ventral colon, cut into strips (2 × 10 mm), and mounted in a tissue bath system (20-ml capacity) that contained oxygenated Krebs buffer solution warmed to 37.5 ± 0.5 C. After equilibration, incremental doses of PGE2, PGF, PGI2, flunixin meglumine, carprofen, ketoprofen, and phenylbutazone were added to the baths, and contractile activity was recorded. Magnitude of the response was calculated by comparing contractile activity before and after administration of the PG or NSAID to the tissue baths.

Results

PGE2 and PGF caused a significant increase in contractile activity, whereas PGL2 induced an inhibitory response. Activity of NSAID on contraction was predominantly inhibitory. At low concentrations, ketoprofen induced an excitatory effect, which then became inhibitory at high concentrations. Compared with the other NSAID, carprofen significantly reduced contractile activity at lower concentrations.

Conclusions

PGE2 and PGF appear to enhance contractility of large-colon taenia of horses, whereas PGL2 was inhibitory in the in vitro model. Administration of NSAID also inhibited contractility, with carprofen having the most potent effect.

Clinical Relevance

Administration of NSAID in combination with liberation of endogenous PG may predispose horses to development of intestinal stasis and subsequent impaction. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1004-1009)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the role of nitric oxide and an apamin-sensitive nonadrenergic-noncholinergic inhibitory transmitter in in vitro contractile activity of the third compartment in llamas.

Sample Population

Isolated strips of third compartment of the stomach from 5 llamas.

Procedure

Strips were mounted in tissue baths containing oxygenated Kreb's buffer solution and connected to a polygraph chart recorder to measure contractile activity. Atropine, guanethidine, and indomethacin were added to tissue baths to inhibit muscarinic receptors, adrenoreceptors, and prostaglandin synthesis. Responses to electrical field stimulation following addition of the nitric oxide antagonist Νω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and apamin were evaluated.

Results

Electrical field stimulation (EFS) resulted in a reduction in the amplitude and frequency of contractile activity, followed by rebound contraction when EFS was stopped. Addition of L-NAME resulted in a significant reduction in inhibition of contractile activity. Addition of apamin also resulted in a significant reduction in inhibitory contractile activity at most stimulation frequencies. The combination of L-NAME and apamin resulted in a significant reduction in inhibition at all frequencies.

Conclusion

Nitric oxide and a transmitter acting via an apamin-sensitive mechanism appear to be involved in inhibition of contractile activity of the third compartment in llamas.

Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that nitric oxide plays an important role in mediating contractile activity of the third compartment in llamas. Use of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may have a role in the therapeutic management of llamas with lesions of the third compartment. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1166— 1169)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research