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- Author or Editor: Faye A. Hartmann x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical performance of a commercially available compartmentalized urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test plate (CCSP) for identification of canine bacteriuria and assessment of isolate antimicrobial susceptibility.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 71 dogs.
PROCEDURES Urine samples (n = 84) were divided into 3 aliquots. One aliquot (reference culture) was plated on culture medium ≤ 1 hour after collection for quantitative culture and testing by standard laboratory methods, another was stored at 4°C for 24 hours (to mimic storage practices at primary care facilities) and then processed by standard methods, and the third was applied to a CCSP ≤ 1 hour after collection to be processed and interpreted according to manufacturer instructions. Results were compared with those for reference culture, which was used as the criterion reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and agreement between methods was evaluated.
RESULTS 43 isolates (25 single and 9 multiple isolates) were identified in 34 reference cultures. All results for stored cultures were identical to those for reference cultures. Overall sensitivity of the CCSP method to detect bacteriuria was 93%, and specificity was 100%. Thirty-three of 43 (77%) and 19 of 33 (58%) CCSP bacterial isolates were correctly identified to the genus and species level, respectively. The CCSP antimicrobial susceptibility results matched those for reference cultures for 13 of 33 (39%) isolates evaluated.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Limitations of the CCSP method included inaccuracy of some antimicrobial susceptibility test results and failure to correctly identify bacteriuria in some dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of disinfectant-filled foot mats at reducing tracking of Salmonella enterica and overall bacterial contamination on floors in a veterinary teaching hospital.
Samples—Bacteria collected from floors before and after placement of disinfectant-filled foot mats.
Procedures—Foot mats filled with a phenolic-based disinfectant were placed at key transition areas in common-use corridors between the large animal hospital (LAH) and small animal hospital in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Microbiological samples were collected for total bacterial counts and for the presence of S enterica at 14 designated sample sites in the veterinary medical teaching hospital. Samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 months before mat placement and for 13 months after mat placement.
Results—Median numbers of aerobic bacteria isolated before and after disinfectant mat placement were not significantly different for most sites sampled. For 3 of the 4 transition areas between the LAH and connecting common-use corridor, there was a significant difference in median bacterial counts on either side of the threshold. This difference was significant regardless of whether a disinfectant mat was present or not. Salmonella enterica isolates were cultured from several sites in the LAH and sites outside the LAH, irrespective of the presence of a disinfectant mat.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Disinfectant-filled mats may not be uniformly effective in reducing the bacterial load on floors or in reducing mechanical tracking of S enterica from contaminated areas in a veterinary teaching hospital. Further studies are needed to determine effective measures to reduce mechanical transmission of bacteria on footwear in veterinary hospitals.
Objective—To determine whether Salmonella spp could be isolated from the environment of free stall dairies in Wisconsin without any history of clinical salmonellosis and determine the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of any Salmonella isolates recovered from the environment.
Study Population—20 free stall dairies with no history of clinical salmonellosis.
Procedures—Dairy owners completed a questionnaire regarding management and production practices. Multiple swab samples were obtained from throughout the free stall facilities and submitted for bacterial culture for Salmonella spp. Odds ratios were calculated to compare herd-level risk factors between dairies from which Salmonella organisms were isolated and herds from which Salmonella organisms were not isolated.
Results—Salmonella organisms were isolated from 9 of the 20 (45%) dairies. Salmonella serotype Meleagridis was isolated from 4 dairies, S Meleagridis and S Kentucky were isolated from 2 dairies, S Meleagridis and S Cyprus were isolated from 1 dairy, S Cerro was isolated from 1 dairy, and S Corvallis was isolated from 1 dairy. All isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. None of the potential risk factors analyzed demonstrated a significant association with an increased likelihood of isolating Salmonella spp.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental Salmonella contamination was demonstrated on free stall dairies with no history of clinical salmonellosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:574–577)
Objective—To determine the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria and its natural clinical course over a 3-month period in healthy female dogs.
Design—Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study.
Animals—101 healthy client-owned female dogs.
Procedures—In all dogs, screening clinicopathologic tests and bacteriologic culture of urine were performed. In culture-positive dogs, subclinical bacteriuria was confirmed by 2 positive culture results within 2 weeks and dogs were reevaluated at 3 months.
Results—The prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in healthy female dogs was 9 of 101 (8.9%). Three-month follow-up data were available for 8 of 9 dogs with subclinical bacteriuria. Four dogs had persistent bacteriuria, and 4 had transient bacteriuria. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs during the 3-month observation period. Subclinical bacteriuria was diagnosed in 6 of 51 (12%) young and middle-aged dogs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) senior and geriatric dogs. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria with age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that subclinical bacteriuria is a nonprogressive condition in healthy female dogs and can be persistent or transient. No significant difference in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in young and middle-aged dogs versus senior and geriatric dogs was detected. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs requiring antimicrobial treatment during the 3-month observation period. Healthy female dogs with subclinical bacteriuria may be a population of dogs in which antimicrobial treatment is unnecessary.
To compare urine concentrations of fibrinogen (uFIB) and interleukin-6 (uIL-6) between dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria and healthy dogs.
Banked urine samples with negative aerobic culture results from 8 dogs with urolithiasis, 9 dogs with anatomic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract (LUT), 10 dogs with LUT neoplasia, and 21 healthy control dogs.
Urine creatinine concentration (uCrea) was determined by an automated biochemical analyzer, and uFIB and uIL-6 were determined by dog-specific ELISAs. The uFIB:uCrea and uIL-6:uCrea ratios were calculated for each sample to normalize intersample differences in urine concentration and were compared among the 4 experimental groups.
Median uFIB:uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.72; interquartile [25th to 75 percentile] range [IQR], 0.46 to 3.48) and LUT neoplasia (6.16; IQR, 3.89 to 12.75), but not for dogs with LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.48; IQR, 0.27 to 0.69), were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.17; IQR, 0.07 to 0.39). Median uIL-6:uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.48; IQR, 0.18 to 1.61), LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.25; IQR, 0.17 to 0.33), and LUT neoplasia (0.25; IQR, 0.12 to 1.01) were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.08; IQR, 0.06 to 0.11).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The uFIB and uIL-6 in dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria were generally greater than corresponding values in control dogs. Further investigation is necessary to determine the role of fibrinogen in enterococcal colonization of the urinary tract of dogs.
Case Description—A 19-month-old 536.4-kg (1,180-lb) Brown Swiss heifer was referred for evaluation of a firm swelling over the distal aspect of the right metatarsal region and chronic lameness in the right hind limb.
Clinical Findings—Examination of radiographs of the right metatarsophalangeal joints revealed an expansile, smoothly marginated, cyst-like lesion within the distal metaphysis of the metatarsal III and IV bone. Differential diagnoses included bone abscess, bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, neoplasia, osteomyelitis, and metabolic bone disease. Aerobic microbial culture of the aspirate yielded moderate growth of branching, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, which were presumptively identified as Nocardia spp. The isolate was subsequently identified as Nocardia arthritidis by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.
Treatment and Outcome—The lesion was surgically debrided, lavaged, and bandaged. Exercise was restricted, and systemic and local administration of antimicrobials was instituted. After a communication between the abscess and the metatarsophalangeal joints was iatrogenically created, the extralabel use of aminoglycosides was initiated. The heifer had noticeable clinical improvement within 2 weeks after initial evaluation and reportedly had no evidence of lameness and minimal external blemishes 3 months after the second evaluation.
Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, this is the first report on the diagnosis and management of a long-bone abscess attributable to N arthritidis infection in cattle. Complications encountered during treatment and the decision to engage in extralabel use of antimicrobial agents in the heifer described here may serve as a guide for food animal practitioners faced with the treatment of valuable cattle.
To describe the prevalence of postoperative bacteriuria, clinical course of subclinical bacteriuria in the absence of antimicrobial intervention, clinical signs of bacteriuria that trigger antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes for dogs with subclinical bacteriuria following surgical decompression of acute intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) Hansen type I.
Twenty client-owned dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for acute (≤ 6 days) IVDH Hansen type I affecting the thoracolumbar spinal cord segments between August 2018 and January 2019.
In this prospective study, dogs were serially evaluated at presentation, hospital discharge, 2 weeks postoperatively, and between 4 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs of bacteriuria, underwent laboratory monitoring (CBC, biochemical analyses, urinalysis, urine bacterial culture), and were scored for neurologic and urinary status. In the absence of clinical signs, bacteriuria was not treated with antimicrobials.
Four of the 18 dogs developed bacteriuria without clinical signs 4 days to 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. In all 4 dogs, bacteriuria resulted in lower urinary tract signs 13 to 26 weeks postoperatively. No dogs had evidence of systemic illness despite delaying antimicrobial treatment until clinical signs developed. New-onset incontinence was the only clinical sign in 3 dogs. All bacterial isolates had wide antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriuria and clinical signs resolved with beta-lactam antimicrobial treatment.
Postoperative bacteriuria occurs in some dogs with IVDH Hansen type I and, when present, may lead to clinical signs over time. Clinical signs of bacteriuria may be limited to new-onset urinary incontinence, inappropriate urination, or both. Delaying antimicrobial treatment until clinical signs of bacteriuria developed did not result in adverse consequences or systemic illness.