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  • Author or Editor: Faye A. Harmon x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the vascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas.

Animals—7 adult llamas.

Procedure—Immediately after each llama was euthanatized, vascular replicas of tissue from the third compartment were prepared by use of methylmethacrylate monomer and catalyst. Following chemical removal of tissue, the casts were further prepared for examination via scanning electron microscopy. By use of barium solution, microangiography was also performed on fixed tissue samples; the infused tissue was sectioned and imaged radiographically. Tissue samples were also collected for histologic evaluation after fixation and H&E staining.

Results—The third compartment was supplied by 4 pairs of primary arteries and veins located around the circumference of the structure. From these vessels, smaller arteries and veins branched to supply the serosal surface and penetrated deeper through the tunica muscularis to supply the submucosal and mucosal layers. An extensive capillary network was arranged in a hexagonal array surrounding the gastric glands, such that the mucosal aspect of the replicas had a honeycomb-like appearance. Histologically, variably sized villous projections lined by a single layer of epithelial cells with an extensive glandular network were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The third compartment of the stomach of llamas is a highly vascular structure with an extensive anastomotic capillary network at the luminal surface. Branching vessels provide extensive collateral circulation, and it appears that surgical incisions should heal well. Incisions in the third compartment should be oriented parallel to the longitudinal plane. (Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:346–350)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of 2 cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors on contractile activity of the circular smooth muscle layer of the equine dorsal and ventral colon.

Sample Population—Samples of the dorsal and ventral colon obtained from 10 healthy horses.

Procedure—Full-thickness tissue samples were collected from the dorsal colon in the area of the diaphragmatic flexure and the ventral colon in the area of the sternal flexure. Samples were cut into strips oriented along the fibers of the circular muscle layer and mounted in a tissue bath system for determination of contractile strength. Incremental amounts of etodolac, nabumetone, and indomethacin were added, and contractile activity was recorded.

Results—Response of the dorsal and ventral colon to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was variable. Indomethacin induced the greatest reduction in contractile activity, followed by nabumetone. For etodolac, the difference from baseline values was only significantly reduced at the highest concentration used (1 × 10–5M) for the ventral colon.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The NSAIDs that are designed to target the COX-2 isoform appeared to have variable effects on the contractile activity of the equine dorsal and ventral colon. Etodolac appeared to have the least effect on contractile activity, compared with the effects attributable to nabumetone, and would potentially have the fewest adverse effects relative to motility of the dorsal and ventral colon. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1496–1500)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of intraluminal administration of a customized solution during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion in the jejunum of horses.

Sample Population—Segments of jejunum obtained from 13 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—In isolated segments of jejunum maintained in an extracorporeal circuit, arterial flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 40 minutes (ischemia) followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. In 2 groups, a customized solution (concentrations, 12.5 and 25%, respectively) was placed in the lumen prior to lowflow ischemia and maintained during reperfusion. The control group received intraluminal lactated Ringer's solution for the same duration. Various metabolic, hemodynamic, histologic, and permeability variables were recorded.

Results—The 12.5% solution resulted in less histomorphologic injury and reduced mucosal permeability to albumin, compared with the 25% solution and the lactated Ringer's solution. Morphologic injury and permeability were reduced in tissues that received the 25% solution, compared with the control group, but this difference was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a 12.5% customized solution appeared to minimize injury in the isolated extracoporeal jejunal loop, which provides some indication that it might be useful in clinical situations. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1389–1394)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a customized solution could attenuate the effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion injury of the equine jejunum.

Sample Population—A segment of jejunum obtained from 21 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—A segment of jejunum was maintained in an isolated extracorporeal circuit, and arterial flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 40 minutes (ischemia) followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. In 1 group, a customized solution was infused at a rate of 1 ml/min during low-flow ischemia and 3 ml/min during reperfusion. In a second group, the solution was infused at the same rate during low-flow ischemia, but it was infused at a rate of 7 ml/min during reperfusion. Control groups received lactated Ringer's solution administered at the same rates as for the customized solution. Various metabolic, hemodynamic, histologic, and permeability variables were recorded.

Results—A lower flow rate during reperfusion (3 ml/min) had a beneficial effect, compared with lactated Ringer's solution or the higher flow rate (7 ml/min). Use of the solution at this rate resulted in less histomorphologic injury and reduced mucosal permeability to albumin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a customized solution at a lower flow rate during repurfusion appeared to have a protective effect on equine jejunum when administered IV during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. (Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:1679–1686)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the role of nitric oxide and an apamin-sensitive nonadrenergic noncholingeric inhibitory transmitter on contractility of the ventral colon of horses.

Sample population—Strips of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers and taenia of the ventral colon from 14 horses.

Procedure—Muscle strips were suspended in tissue baths and attached to force transducers. Contractile activity of circular, longitudinal, and taenia muscle strips in response to electrical field stimulation was measured after addition of apamin and a nitric oxide inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME).

Results—Electrical field stimulation reduced contractile activity in the circular muscle layer and taenia but not the longitudinal muscle layer. Addition of L-NAME significantly reduced inhibitory contractile activity at all frequencies for the circular muscle layer, whereas a significant effect was evident for the taenia only at the highest frequency. The combination of L-NAME and apamin resulted in a significant reduction in inhibition of the taenia at all frequencies but for circular muscle only at lower frequencies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nitric oxide and an apamin-sensitive neurotransmitter appear to mediate a component of inhibitory transmission in the circular muscle and taenia, but not the longitudinal muscle layer, of the equine ventral colon. Nitric oxide has a role in regulating contractile activity of the equine ventral colon, and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may be useful in horses with ileus of the large colon. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:64–68)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effect of leukocyte depletion on hematologic, morphologic, and metabolic variables of equine jejunum after induction of arterial lowflow ischemia and reperfusion by use of an extracorporeal circuit.

Animals—14 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—A segment of jejunum was surgically removed and maintained in an isolated circuit for 3 hours (control group), arterial flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 40 minutes followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (low-flow group), or leukocyte depletion was filter-induced, and low-flow ischemia and reperfusion were conducted as in the low-flow control group (filter-treated group). Various metabolic, hemodynamic, and histomorphologic variables were evaluated, including effects of electrical field stimulation and L- N-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) on contractile activity.

Results—The extracorporeal circuit appeared to maintain the jejunum within physiologic limits for an extended period. Low-flow ischemia with reperfusion induced significant differences in various measurements, compared with control specimens. Significant differences were not detected between the low-flow and filter-treated groups. Myeloperoxidase activity was greater in the low-flow group than the control group, whereas a difference was not detected between control and filter-treated groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The extracorporeal circuit maintained intestine for 3 hours in a physiologic state and may be used for simulation of tissue injury. Leukocyte depletion generally did not attenuate the effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion on equine small intestine. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:87–96)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine efficacy of an extracorporeal circuit to maintain a segment of equine large colon for 3.5 hours and to evaluate the effect of low arterial flow on histologic and metabolic variables.

Sample Population—Segments of large colon from 15 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—The pelvic flexure was surgically removed and maintained in an isolated circuit. In the control group, tissue was evaluated for 3.5 hours, whereas in the low-flow group, arterial flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 40 minutes followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Various metabolic and hemodynamic variables were evaluated at 30-minute intervals. Effects of nitric oxide (NO) and L-N-nitro-arginine- methyl-ester (L-NAME) on contractile activity were determined, and histomorphologic evaluation was performed at the completion of the study.

Results—Low-flow ischemia with reperfusion caused significant histomorphologic differences, compared with the control group. In the low-flow group, significant differences included reduction in PaCO2, reduction in bicarbonate concentrations, increase in PaO2, and an increase in base deficit in arterial and venous blood samples. Other significant differences included increases in PCV, protein concentration, total WBC count, and albumin clearance for the low-flow group. Differences were not detected in inhibitory activity of the low-flow group relative to the control tissue with or without addition of NO and L-NAME.

Conclusion—The extracorporeal circuit maintained a segment of equine intestine for 3.5 hours and can be used to simulate ischemic injury. The extracorporeal circuit provides the potential to investigate pharmaceutic agents that can minimize intestinal injury. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1042–1051)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) genes 1 and 2 (also called prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2) and stability of housekeeping gene expression during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion in the jejunum of horses.

Animals—5 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were anesthetized, and two 30-cm segments of jejunum were surgically exteriorized. Blood flow was maintained at baseline (untreated) values in 1 (control) segment and was decreased to 20% of baseline (low-flow ischemia) for 75 minutes, followed by 75 minutes of reperfusion, in the other (experimental) segment. Biopsy samples were collected from experimental segments at baseline (T0), after 75 minutes of ischemia (T1), and after 75 minutes of reperfusion (T2); samples were collected from control segments at T0 and T2. Horses were euthanized 24 hours after induction of ischemia (T3), and additional samples were collected. Samples were evaluated histologically. Total RNA was extracted; expression of COX genes and stability of 8 housekeeping genes were determined via quantitative real-time PCR assays.

Results—COX-1 and COX-2 genes were constitutively expressed in baseline samples. Low-flow ischemia resulted in significant upregulation of COX-2 gene expression at each subsequent time point, compared with baseline values. The most stably expressed reference genes were β-actin and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, whereas glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-2 microglobulin were the least stably expressed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-flow ischemia resulted in upregulation of COX-2 gene expression in the jejunum of horses. Housekeeping genes traditionally used as internal standards may not be stable in this tissue during arterial low-flow ischemia and reperfusion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the response to neostigmine of the contractile activity of the jejunum and pelvic flexure and the effects of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of neostigmine in horses.

Animals—7 adult horses and tissue from 12 adult horses.

Procedures—A CRI of neostigmine (0.008 mg/kg/h) or placebo was administered to 6 horses in a crossover study design. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the acetaminophen test. The frequency of defecation and urination and the consistency and weight of feces were recorded throughout the experiment. The effect of neostigmine on smooth muscle contractile activity was evaluated in tissues from the jejunum and pelvic flexure. The effect of neostigmine and acetylcholine after incubation with muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine and DAU 5884) and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (edrophonium) was also investigated in vitro.

Results—No difference was observed between neostigmine and placebo for time to reach peak plasma acetaminophen concentration and absorption rate constant. A CRI of neostigmine increased fecal production and frequency of urination. Neostigmine induced a dose-dependent increase of contractile amplitude in jejunum and pelvic flexure muscle strips. Incubation of muscle strips with atropine and DAU 5884 inhibited the response to acetylcholine and neostigmine. Incubation of smooth muscle strips from the jejunum with edrophonium increased the response to acetylcholine and had no effect on the response to neostigmine in vitro.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A CRI of neostigmine increased fecal production and urination frequency in horses. A CRI of neostigmine did not decrease gastric emptying. Neostigmine stimulated contractile activity of jejunum and pelvic flexure smooth muscle strips in vitro.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research