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A 14-year-old neutered male Miniature Schnauzer was evaluated at the Louisiana State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital emergency service because of tenesmus. The dog had inappetence, stranguria, and defecation of small amounts of soft stool with increased frequency for 3 days prior. The dog also had a history of intervertebral disk disease that was being medically managed by the primary veterinarian. The dog was housed primarily indoors with no other pets and had supervised access to a fenced backyard. The owner was with the dog all morning prior to evaluation. The dog's status on vaccines and heartworm prevention was current.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

An 8.5-year-old spayed female Siberian Husky weighing 28.0 kg (61.6 lb) was evaluated because of a sudden onset of dyspnea. The dog was current with regard to routine vaccinations and monthly heartworm prevention and had no prior underlying medical conditions.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On physical examination, the dog was quiet, alert, and responsive; dyspneic with clear lung sounds bilaterally; and tachycardic (160 beats/min) with muffled heart sounds and weak femoral pulses. No arrhythmias or murmurs were auscultated, and the other physical examination findings were considered normal. Pleural effusion was detected during a thoracic ultrasonographic examination; 1.75 L of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedures—Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.

Results—Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
History

A 2-year-old 96.3-g (0.21-lb) female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) kept at the Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine of Louisiana State University was noted to have a swollen abdomen, unthrifty coat, decreased appetite, and lethargic attitude. This animal was involved in a research project to investigate the complete life cycles of Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi. These species are arthropod-transmitted nematodes known to be causative agents of lymphatic filariasis—a tropical disease commonly known as elephantiasis—in humans. However, this gerbil was specifically used as an uninfected control.

Clinical and Gross Findings

Initial physical examination revealed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 3-year-old 0.46-kg sexually intact male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was evaluated at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine because of a 4-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and decrease in water intake. The owners reported that the hedgehog was less active, they had not seen it defecate recently, and they thought it had possibly urinated on itself.

Clinical and Gross Findings

At the first clinical evaluation, the hedgehog was responsive, stable, and apparently clinically normal. The hedgehog was admitted to the hospital for a full diagnostic workup. During the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine hepatic effects of halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in young healthy goats.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—24 healthy 9-month-old female goats.

Procedure—Goats were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and anesthetized with halothane (n = 12) or isoflurane (12) while undergoing tendon surgery. End-tidal halothane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.9 and 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentrations, respectively, and ventilation was controlled. Venous blood samples were collected approximately 15 minutes after xylazine was administered and 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Goats were euthanatized 25 or 62 days after anesthesia, and postmortem liver specimens were submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All goats recovered from anesthesia and survived until euthanasia. Serum SDH, GGT, and ALP activities and bilirubin concentration did not increase after anesthesia, but serum AST activity was significantly increased. However, serum hepatic enzyme activities were within reference limits at all times in all except 1 goat in which serum AST activity was high 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia. This goat had been anesthetized with halothane and had the longest duration of anesthesia. No clinically important abnormalities were seen on histologic examination of liver specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of halothane or isoflurane for anesthesia in young healthy goats is unlikely to cause hepatic injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1697–1700)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old sexually intact female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was evaluated because of a swelling on the right side of the face and irritated area on the ventral aspect of the keel.

Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were consistent with dermatitis (right facial lesion) and a coalescing subdermal granuloma (ventral keel lesion). Hematologic analysis revealed monocytosis and mild anemia. Histologic evaluation of the ventral keel lesion revealed evidence of chronic heterophilic dermatitis with multinucleated giant cells and bacterial rods and cocci. An unspeciated gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium was isolated via aerobic bacterial culture. Results of bacterial biochemical tests suggested the organism was a type of Actinomyces. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed; results indicated the organism was Lactobacillus jensenii.

Treatment and Outcome—Extensive surgical debridement of the branching granuloma, which extended throughout the length of the keel, followed by long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin and clindamycin provided full resolution of clinical signs. No recrudescence of clinical signs was evident for up to 18 months after the initial evaluation.

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Lactobacillus-associated dermatitis or subdermal granuloma in the scientific literature and the second report of L jensenii in avian species. Use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was instrumental in the identification of this fastidious organism, indicating the method's usefulness as a diagnostic tool.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association