Objective—To determine hepatic effects of
halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in young healthy
Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.
Animals—24 healthy 9-month-old female goats.
Procedure—Goats were sedated with xylazine
hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and anesthetized
with halothane (n = 12) or isoflurane (12)
while undergoing tendon surgery. End-tidal halothane
and isoflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.9
and 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentrations,
respectively, and ventilation was controlled. Venous
blood samples were collected approximately 15 minutes
after xylazine was administered and 24 and 48
hours after anesthesia, and serum aspartate aminotransferase
(AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH),
alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase
(GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured.
Goats were euthanatized 25 or 62 days after
anesthesia, and postmortem liver specimens were
submitted for histologic examination.
Results—All goats recovered from anesthesia and
survived until euthanasia. Serum SDH, GGT, and ALP
activities and bilirubin concentration did not increase
after anesthesia, but serum AST activity was significantly
increased. However, serum hepatic enzyme
activities were within reference limits at all times in all
except 1 goat in which serum AST activity was high
24 and 48 hours after anesthesia. This goat had been
anesthetized with halothane and had the longest
duration of anesthesia. No clinically important abnormalities
were seen on histologic examination of liver
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that use of halothane or isoflurane for anesthesia
in young healthy goats is unlikely to cause hepatic
injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1697–1700)
Objective—To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.
Animals—6 healthy horses.
Procedures—Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.
Results—Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.
Case Description—A 5-year-old sexually intact female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was evaluated because of a swelling on the right side of the face and irritated area on the ventral aspect of the keel.
Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were consistent with dermatitis (right facial lesion) and a coalescing subdermal granuloma (ventral keel lesion). Hematologic analysis revealed monocytosis and mild anemia. Histologic evaluation of the ventral keel lesion revealed evidence of chronic heterophilic dermatitis with multinucleated giant cells and bacterial rods and cocci. An unspeciated gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium was isolated via aerobic bacterial culture. Results of bacterial biochemical tests suggested the organism was a type of Actinomyces. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed; results indicated the organism was Lactobacillus jensenii.
Treatment and Outcome—Extensive surgical debridement of the branching granuloma, which extended throughout the length of the keel, followed by long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin and clindamycin provided full resolution of clinical signs. No recrudescence of clinical signs was evident for up to 18 months after the initial evaluation.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Lactobacillus-associated dermatitis or subdermal granuloma in the scientific literature and the second report of L jensenii in avian species. Use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was instrumental in the identification of this fastidious organism, indicating the method's usefulness as a diagnostic tool.