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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the acute strength (failure load and work to failure) of standard incisional gastropexy (SIG) and modified incisional gastropexy (MIG).

ANIMALS

37 pig cadavers.

PROCEDURES

Stomachs and right abdominal walls were harvested from pigs euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. The tissues were stored in lactated Ringer’s solution overnight in a 5 °C cooler. Matching body wall and stomach tissue pairs were randomized and divided into 2 groups, on which either SIG or MIG was performed the following day. The MIG technique was identical to SIG except 2 additional simple interrupted sutures, 1 cranial and 1 caudal to the continuous suture line, were placed full thickness into the stomach to ensure engagement of the submucosa. After gastropexy, the samples underwent biomechanical testing. Information regarding change in position and load was generated by the MTESTQuattro software. Mode of failure was examined after the procedure was complete.

RESULTS

The MIG had higher failure load and work to failure compared to SIG. All failures were caused by gastric tissue tearing.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The MIG is biomechanically superior to SIG and may provide more security than SIG during healing. However, clinical study is needed to ascertain if there is a difference in gastropexy failure and complications between these 2 techniques.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Intranasal (in) and intratracheal (it) oxygen administration techniques were compared by measuring inspired oxygen concentrations (FIO2) and partial pressures of arterial oxygen (PaO2) in 5 healthy dogs at various in (50, 100, 150, and 200 ml/kg of body weight/min) and it (10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ml/kg/min) oxygen flow rates. Intratracheal administration of oxygen permitted lower oxygen flow rates than in administration. Each it oxygen flow rate produced significantly higher FIO2 and PaO2 than the corresponding in flow rate. An it oxygen flow rate of 25 ml/kg/min produced FIO2 and PaO2 values equivalent to those produced by an in oxygen flow rate of 50 ml/kg/min. An it oxygen flow rate of 50 ml/kg/min produced FIO2 and PaO2 values equivalent to those produced by in oxygen flow rates of 100 and 150 ml/kg/min. All it oxygen flow rates ≥ 100 ml/kg/min produced FIQ2 and PaO2 values that were greater than FIO2 and PaO2 values produced by in oxygen flow rates of 200 ml/kg/ min.

The lowest flow rates studied (50 ml/kg/min, in, and 10 ml/kg/min, it) produced PaO2 capable of maintaining 97% hemoglobin saturation, which should be adequate for most clinical situations. Arterial blood gas analysis and FIO2 measurements are necessary to accurately guide oxygen flow adjustments to achieve the desired PaO2 and to prevent oxygen toxicity produced by excessive FIO2.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare survival rate, duration of hospitalization, and complications in dogs with pancreatic abscesses treated with omentalization with abdominal closure versus open peritoneal drainage and evaluate a pancreatitis severity score for potential prognostic value.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—15 dogs with pancreatic abscesses.

Procedure—Data regarding species, breed, age, initial clinical signs, CBC, serum biochemical abnormalities, pancreatitis severity score, anatomic location of the abscess, intraoperative bacteriologic culture results, treatment modality, postoperative complications, outcome (dismissed alive from the hospital, died in the postoperative period, or euthanized at surgery), and duration of hospitalization were evaluated.

Results—6 dogs survived, 6 dogs died or were euthanized after surgery, and 3 were euthanized during surgery. Five of 8 dogs treated with omentalization and abdominal closure survived, and 1 of 4 dogs treated with open peritoneal drainage survived. In several dogs, treatment required additional surgical procedures, which did not appear to affect outcome. Postoperative complications were similar among survivors and nonsurvivors. Mean duration of hospitalization for dogs treated with omentalization and abdominal closure was less than that of dogs treated with open peritoneal drainage. Neither pancreatitis severity score nor any individual components of the score were associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omentalization is a viable treatment option for pancreatic abscess in dogs. Furthermore, shorter hospitalization and better survival outcomes may make omentalization preferred over open peritoneal drainage.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—6 dogs and a cat were evaluated because of caudal colonic and rectal masses.

Clinical Findings—Tumors were identified in the caudal portion of the colon (n = 2), in the area of the colorectal junction (2), or in the rectum (3).

Treatment and Outcome—In all 7 animals, bilateral pubic and ischial osteotomy was performed to provide exposure of the rectum and associated tumor. Masses were successfully removed, and all 7 animals were able to ambulate normally within 3 days after surgery. No complications associated with the osteotomy procedure were identified.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that bilateral pubic and ischial osteotomy provided sufficient exposure for resection of intrapelvic tumors in dogs and a cat with minimal complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine complications and outcomes for dogs that underwent digit amputation.

Design—Retrospective case series and owner survey.

Animals—33 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent digit amputation were evaluated. Signalment, digits amputated, level of amputation, reason for amputation, and complications were recorded. Owners were contacted via mail or telephone to collect follow-up information.

Results—35 digit amputation procedures were performed for the 33 dogs in the study (1 dog underwent 3 procedures). Short-term (≤ 14 days) complications other than lameness were detected in dogs after 13 of 33 (39.4%) procedures for which follow-up information was available; incisional dehiscence was the most common short-term complication. Long-term (>14 days) lameness was detected in dogs after 8 of 32 (25.0%) procedures for which follow-up information was available; lameness was mild or intermittent after 6 of these procedures. Amputation of a digit in a hind limb was the only variable that was significantly associated with the development of short-term complications. Twenty-four of 33 (72.7%) owners responded to the survey via mail or telephone interview; 23 (95.8%) of those owners were satisfied with the procedure. Most dogs had a good functional outcome (including dogs that underwent amputation of digit 3 or 4 or both).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Amputation of a hind limb digit was the only risk factor identified for development of short-term complications. Dogs that underwent amputation of digit 3 or 4 or both did not seem to have a worse outcome than dogs that underwent amputation of other digits.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors and

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the detailed surgical procedure for open-chest CPR (OC-CPR) through a transdiaphragmatic (TD) approach during planned laparotomy and to evaluate the procedure time and damage to organs.

ANIMALS

7 mixed-breed canine cadavers.

METHODS

The procedure was divided into 3 stages. Durations for each of the 3 stages of the procedure and total time from diaphragmatic incision to the end of Rumel tourniquet application were recorded. Subjective assessment of ease of procedures and postprocedural physical evaluation of thoracoabdominal organs were also performed.

RESULTS

Mean time from diaphragmatic incision to pericardiotomy was 15.1 seconds (SD, 4.0). Performing 10 cardiac compressions took 12.0 seconds (SD, 1.8). Dissection of the aorta and application of a Rumel tourniquet took 130.4 seconds (SD, 52.2). The mean total time from start of first procedure to end of last procedure was 157.6 seconds (SD, 21.5). The mean length of diaphragmatic incision was 11.5 cm (SD, 2.2). Lung laceration was identified in one dog, and liver laceration was identified in another dog. The mean ease of pericardiotomy was 10, and application of a Rumel tourniquet was 4 (SD, 1.9). There was no instance of abdominal organs moving into the thoracic cavity during the procedure in any of the dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Resuscitation techniques during TD OC-CPR can be performed with acceptable timing and effort, except for aortic Rumel tourniquet application, which was difficult and time consuming. Avoidable damage to thoracoabdominal organs can occur.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eight dogs were determined to be orthopedically normal on the basis of prelavage physical examination, stifle radiography, synovial fluid analysis, and force plate analysis (peak vertical force normalized for body weight, and time on the force plate). Each dog had 1 stifle randomly assigned to be lavaged with 100 ml of a commercially available 0.05% (w/v) chlorhexidine diacetate solution, and the contralateral stifle was lavaged with lactated Ringer’s solution.

Difference was not detected between the chlorhexidine diacetate and lactated Ringer’s solution-treated joints, with regard to results of synovial fluid analysis and clinical lameness evaluations on days 4 and 8 after lavage. Chlorhexidine diacetate caused a more intense synovitis than did lactated Ringer’s solution, as determined by histologic evaluation of synovial membrane specimens after necropsy on day 8; however, a difference in the intensity of toluidine blue staining of articular cartilage was not found between treatments. Chlorhexidine diacetate, as a 0.05% (w/v) solution, cannot be recommended as a joint lavage fluid until the duration of inflammatory changes in the synovial membrane are determined or until the chemical constituents of chlorhexidine diacetate causing the synovitis can be identified and removed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the in vitro axial extraction forces necessary to remove pins and to evaluate mechanical trauma resulting from pin insertion, using various types of pins and insertion techniques.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Subjects

Femurs of cadavers of dogs.

Procedure

Pins were inserted as follows: 1 non-threaded pin without drilling of a pilot hole, 1 enhanced threaded pin with drilling of a pilot hole, and 1 enhanced threaded pin without drilling of a pilot hole. After pin insertion, mechanical damage and proper pin insertion was determined by means of radiography. Axial extraction forces were determined for all pins, using a universal testing machine. Mechanical damage was evaluated in 12 additional femurs. After pin insertion, all pins were removed from the bone by use of a low-speed power drill. Samples were sectioned, processed, and evaluated by use of dissecting and scanning electron microscopy.

Results

Using radiography, a significant difference was detected in the number of periosteal trans-cortex fractures between the enhanced threaded and non-threaded pins. Axial extraction force was not significantly different between the enhanced threaded pins, regardless of insertion technique; however, the axial extraction force was significantly greater for enhanced threaded pins, compared with that for nonthreaded pins. Microfractures only were detected on the periosteum of the trans-cortex of enhanced threaded pins by use of scanning electron microscopy.

Clinical Implications

We cannot recommend a particular insertion technique to decrease mechanical trauma to the bone and to increase axial extraction force needed for removal of enhanced threaded pins from the femur of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:883–887)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association