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  • Author or Editor: F. Javier López-Sanromán x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the local analgesic effect of ketamine in a palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses.

Animals—36 mature healthy Andalusian horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 9 horses each and received an abaxial sesamoid block in a randomly chosen forelimb with 1 of the following: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 1% ketamine solution, 2% ketamine solution, or 3% ketamine solution. To determine analgesia, the radiant heat lamp-hoof withdrawal model was used as a noxious thermal stimulus. Before each nerve block, baseline hoof withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL, time between lamp illumination and withdrawal of the hoof) was determined; after the nerve block, local analgesic effects were determined by measuring HWRL at 2 and 5 minutes after injection and then every 5 minutes for a total period of 1 hour.

Results—Significant differences in HWRL were found between baseline values and values at 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with ketamine. Significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 10 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 1 or 2% ketamine solution. Similarly, significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 3% ketamine solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abaxial sesamoid block with ketamine ensures adequate analgesia in horses with an onset of action of 2 minutes and a maximal duration of action of 15 minutes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:475–478)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the duration of effects on movement patterns of horses after sedation with equipotent doses of xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, or romifidine hydrochloride and determine whether accelerometry can be used to quantify differences among drug treatments.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedures—Each horse was injected IV with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 mL), xylazine diluted in saline solution (0.5 mg/kg), detomidine diluted in saline solution (0.01 mg/kg), or romifidine diluted in saline solution (0.04 mg/kg) in random order. A triaxial accelerometric device was used for gait assessment 15 minutes before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes after each treatment. Eight variables were calculated, including speed, stride frequency, stride length, regularity, dorsoventral power, propulsive power, mediolateral power, and total power; the force of acceleration and 3 components of power were then calculated.

Results—Significant differences were evident in stride frequency and regularity between treatments with saline solution and each α2-adrenoceptor agonist drug; in speed, dorsoventral power, propulsive power, total power, and force values between treatments with saline solution and detomidine or romifidine; and in mediolateral power between treatments with saline solution and detomidine. Stride length did not differ among treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accelerometric evaluation of horses administered α2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs revealed more prolonged sedative effects of romifidine, compared with effects of xylazine or detomidine. Accelerometry could be useful in assessing the effects of other sedatives and analgesics. Accelerometric data may be helpful in drug selection for situations in which a horse's balance and coordination are important.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research