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Summary

In October 1985, mycoplasmas were isolated from bulk tank milk samples in a large Florida dairy (>1,400 lactating cows). At that time, measures to isolate and control the spread of infection were instituted. In an initial screening test, Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 21 of 153 milking string samples (milk from all quarters of 10 cows/string). Composite quarter milk samples from all quarters of every individual lactating cow in the herd were obtained for culture in November 1985 and December 1985. In October, 88 of 1,535 (5.7%) cows were identified as Mycoplasma-positive. An additional 31 Mycoplasma-infected cows were identified in December. The dairy elected to maintain the infected cows in a separate Mycoplasma-positive subherd, which would be milked at the end of each milking session. Seven additional Mycoplasma-positive cows were identified at initiation of lactation. All newly identified infected cows were transferred to the Mycoplasma-positive subherd. After segregation of Mycoplasma-positive cows, bulk tank milk samples obtained routinely from the main herd remained culture negative throughout the study. From February 1986 to October 1986, quarter milk samples were obtained monthly from cows in the Mycoplasma-positive subherd. Any cow that developed clinical mastitis or substantial decrease in milk production was, at the discretion of the herdsman, culled. Of the 126 cows in the subherd, 22 (17.5%) were culled for mastitis, 35 (27.8%) were culled for low production, and 9 (7.1%) were culled for other reasons. Of the remaining 60 cows, 16 (12.7% of the 126 cows) were Mycoplasma-positive on the basis of results from one or more samples obtained after February 1986. Significant differences were not observed in milk production between Mycoplasma-positive cows remaining in the subherd and uninfected control cows in the main herd. Cows culled for low milk production had significantly (P < 0.001) lower milk production than did cows of other groups. Cows culled for mastitis were more frequently in second lactation (P = 0.04).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of cardiomyopathy and the relationship between cardiomyopathy and heart murmurs in apparently healthy cats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—103 privately owned, apparently healthy domestic cats.

Procedures—Cats were physically and echocardiographically examined by 2 investigators independently. Left ventricular wall thickness was determined via 2-dimensional echocardiography in short-axis and long-axis planes. Left ventricular hypertrophy was identified when end-diastolic measurements of the interventricular septum or posterior wall were ≥ 6 mm. Cats with left ventricular hypertrophy but without left ventricular dilatation were considered to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The associations between heart murmurs and Doppler echocardiographic velocity profiles indicative of dynamic ventricular outflow tract obstruction were evaluated.

Results—Heart murmurs were detected in 16 (15.5%; 95% confidence interval, 9.2% to 24.0%) cats; of these, 5 had cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy was also identified in 16 (15.5%; 95% confidence interval, 9.2% to 24.0%) cats; 15 had HCM, and 1 had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Of the cats with HCM, 11 had segmental left ventricular hypertrophy, 3 had diffuse left ventricular hypertrophy, and 1 had borderline left ventricular hypertrophy with marked systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Sensitivity and specificity of auscultatory detection of a heart murmur for diagnosing cardiomyopathy were 31% and 87%, respectively. Echocardiographic evidence of late systolic acceleration within ventricular outflow tracts was associated with the existence of a heart murmur.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cardiomyopathy was common in the healthy cats evaluated in this study. In apparently healthy cats, detection of a heart murmur is not a reliable indicator of cardiomyopathy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 17 antimicrobials for Escherichia coli isolates from a turkey operation and assess whether small samples provide precise estimates of geometric mean MIC.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—105 clinical isolates from birds and 1,104 fecal isolates from 20 flocks (poults and finisher hens).

Procedure—A Mueller-Hinton broth dilution panel was used to measure MIC, and MIC of fecal and clinical isolates were compared. We drew random samples of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 isolates from each finisher flock and between 100 and 105 isolates from 5, 7, 10, and 20 flocks. Antimicrobial usage was determined for enrolled flocks.

Results—Six of 12 poult and 18 of 20 finisher flocks had been treated with antimicrobials, often for respiratory illnesses consistent with colibacillosis. All birds received gentamicin at the hatchery. More fecal than clinical isolates were resistant to ampicillin; however, more clinical isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and sulfamethoxazole. Precise estimates of geometric mean MIC for flocks were obtained when ≥ 15 fecal isolates were obtained per flock and, for the operation, when 105 isolates were obtained from ≥ 7 flocks.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Antimicrobial usage was common and may have contributed to the resistance patterns of isolates. With a modest allocation of laboratory resources, producers can monitor antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical and fecal E coli to manage risks of antimicrobial usage and resistance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:411–416)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association