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Case Description—2 cats (13 and 11 years old) were evaluated to determine the cause of nasal discharge of varying duration (4 days and 5 months, respectively).

Clinical Findings—Computed tomography revealed marked turbinate destruction and soft tissue densities in the nasal passages. Histologic examination of nasal specimens revealed chronic active inflammation and branching fungal hyphae consistent with Aspergillus spp. Fungal culture of nasal specimens resulted in growth of Aspergillus spp. Testing yielded negative results for antibodies against Aspergillus spp.

Treatment and Outcome—Both cats were anesthetized and treated with a 1-hour intranasal infusion of clotrimazole. Recovery from the procedure was uncomplicated, and both cats had complete resolution of clinical signs.

Clinical Relevance—Little information is available on the treatment of nasal aspergillosis in cats, and the prognosis for affected animals is considered poor. The procedure for local intranasal infusion of clotrimazole in 2 cats was described here. Results and follow-up monitoring for both cats suggested that this may be a safe, effective, and durable treatment for cats with nasal aspergillosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To culture Lactobacillus spp from veterinary probiotics and measure their in vitro oxalate-degrading capacity.

SAMPLE 2 commercial veterinary probiotics containing Lactobacillus spp.

PROCEDURES Lactobacillus spp were cultured anaerobically on selective deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar medium and subcultured for speciation by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Isolates were inoculated into broth containing sodium oxalate (5 mg/L) and incubated anaerobically for 72 hours. An oxalate-degrading isolate of Lactobacillus acidophilus (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 53544) was the positive control sample; sterile broth containing a known quantity of sodium oxalate was the negative control sample. Oxalate concentrations were detected with ion chromatography. Oxalate degradation was assessed with Dunnett tests to detect differences in mean oxalate concentration for each isolate, compared with results for the negative control.

RESULTS Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus zeae (too closely related to differentiate) were isolated from probiotic 1, and L plantarum was isolated from probiotic 2. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene confirmed 100% homology to type species. Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 53544) and L acidophilus from probiotic 1 significantly decreased oxalate concentrations by 85.3 and 161.9 mg/L, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum from probiotics 1 and 2 significantly increased oxalate concentrations by 56.1 and 36.1 mg/L, respectively. Lactobacillus casei did not alter oxalate concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates significantly reduced oxalate concentrations. In vivo studies are needed to determine whether probiotics containing L acidophilus decrease urine oxalate concentrations and reduce risk of urolith recurrence in dogs with a history of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed.

RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify characteristics of exercise-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers and compare characteristics for dogs with various dynamin 1 gene (DNM1) mutation statuses.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—109 Labrador Retrievers with a history of recurrent exercise-induced collapse, clinically normal behavior and gait between episodes, and no reason for collapse identified via medical evaluation.

Procedures—Data were collected via surveys from owners of dogs that were tested for an autosomal recessive DNM1 mutation causing DNM1-associated exercise-induced collapse (d-EIC). Dogs were identified as having d-EIC (homozygous for the mutation) or not having d-EIC (heterozygous for or without the mutation). Survey data were reviewed by an investigator unaware of the genotypes of dogs, and collapse characteristics were compared between groups.

Results—74 dogs had d-EIC; 35 dogs did not have d-EIC. Dogs with d-EIC were young (median age, 12 months) at the time of the first collapse episode; collapse in such dogs typically originated in the hind limbs and was characterized by low muscle tone, clinically normal mentation, and rapid recovery. Dogs without d-EIC were older (median age, 23 months) than dogs with d-EIC; such dogs had various characteristics of collapse that were not consistent with a single disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Characteristics of exercised-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers with various DNM1 genotypes were identified in this study; findings may help distinguish dogs with d-EIC from those with other types of collapse conditions. Characteristics of collapse in Labrador Retrievers that were not homozygous for the DNM1 mutation differed substantially among dogs and may have been attributable to multiple causes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association