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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Estrogen and progesterone receptors (er, pr) were measured in cytosol fractions from 18 primary canine mammary carcinomas by use of biochemical assays. One or both receptors were detected (> 10 fmol/mg of cytosol protein) in 11 tumors: 5 er and pr; 2 er only; 4 pr only. Mean cytoplasmic receptor concentrations (fmol/mg of cytosol protein) were 22.8 ± 2.9 (sem) for er and 51.0 ± 10.3 for pr in tumors containing er and pr, 28.8 ± 12.1 for er in tumors containing only er and 13.2 ± 1.5 for pr in tumors containing only pr. Estrogen or progesterone receptors or both were identified in 6 of 9 tubular adenocarcinomas, 4 of 5 papillary adenocarcinomas, and 1 of 1 squamous cell carcinoma. These receptors were not identified in solid carcinomas (n = 2) or a single spindle cell carcinoma. Although the number of cases was limited, survival times of dogs tended to be longest in those with tumors containing er alone or in combination with pr, intermediate in those with tumors containing only pr, and shortest in those with tumors without er or pr. A correlation was not apparent between receptor status and age, presence of ovaries, tumor size, or histologic classification of the tumor. In the analysis of this series, the extent of surgery (mastectomy of the involved gland vs unilateral or bilateral mastectomy) did not appear to influence the outcome of the disease, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes did not appear to be a reliable prognostic indicator.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of intraincisional bioactive glass on healing of sutured skin wounds in dogs.

Animals—9 purpose-bred mature female Beagles.

Procedure—3 small matched bilateral (treated vs control) full-thickness truncal skin incisions were made and sutured. Treated wounds received intraincisional particulate bioactive glass prior to closure. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging was used to assess percentage change in tissue perfusion 3 and 5 days after incision on 1 set of 2 matched wounds, and skin and subcutaneous tissue-cutaneous trunci breaking strength were assessed at 5 days. The other 2 sets of wounds were used for histologic evaluation at 5 and 21 days, respectively.

Results—Subjective signs of gross inflammatory reaction were not detected in treated or control wounds. At 5 days, median subcutaneous tissuecutaneous trunci breaking strength was significantly higher in treated wounds than in control wounds (188.75 vs 75.00 g). At 5 days, median scores were significantly higher for neutrophils (1 vs 0), macrophages (2 vs 1), and necrosis (1 vs 0) for treated wounds than for control wounds. At 21 days, median macrophage scores were significantly higher for treated wounds than for control wounds (2 vs1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bioactive glass in soft tissues does not cause a gross inflammatory reaction but causes an increase in histologic signs of inflammation, which decreases with time. Bioactive glass has potential for increasing tissue strength. Increased subcutaneous breaking strength could be beneficial in treating wounds in which early healing strength is needed. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1149–1153)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a hydrolyzed bovine collagen dressing (HBCD) on healing of open wounds in healthy dogs.

Animals—9 female Beagles.

Procedures—2 full-thickness skin wounds were made bilaterally on the trunk of each dog. Wounds on 1 side were treated with powdered HBCD covered with a semiocclusive nonadherent bandage. Wounds on the other side (control wounds) were covered with a semiocclusive nonadherent bandage only. Wound healing was subjectively assessed, and percentage increase in tissue perfusion was assessed by use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI). Planimetry was performed to determine the percentages of contraction, epithelialization, and total wound healing. Biopsy specimens were examined microscopically to evaluate histologic changes.

Results—The HBCD did not induce a strong inflammatory reaction, as reflected by results of LDPI and histologic examination. Moreover, HBCD appeared hydrophilic and provided an environment to keep wounds clean and enhance early epithelialization. After treatment for 7 days, treated wounds had a significantly greater percentage of epithelialization than control wounds (12.13 vs 7.03%).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The hydrophilic property of HBCD may cleanse contaminated wounds with the body's homeostatic fluids and enhance early wound epithelialization. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1574–1578)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

To determine the drug dose required to inhibit platelet reactivity by at least 50%, 2 drug regimens were evaluated in heartworm-negative, heartworm-infected, and heartworm-infected dogs embolized with dead heart-worms. Aspirin, or a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole, were administered to 2 groups of Beagles (n = 5 each) for 5 to 9 days; a third group of 5 Beagles served as nontreated controls. For heartworm-negative dogs, mean (± sd) aspirin dosage that inhibited collagen-induced platelet reactivity by at least 50% was 6 (± 2) mg/kg of body weight given once daily. The aspirin/dipyridamole combination dosage was 1 mg of each drug/kg given every 12 hours. All dogs (n = 15) were implanted with 7 adult heartworms each and remedicated (or not treated) beginning at 21 days after heartworm implantation. In heartworm-infected dogs, mean aspirin dosage required to inhibit collagen-induced platelet reactivity ≥ 50% was 10 ( ± 6) mg/kg. Mean dosage of aspirin/dipyridamole combination was 1.6 ± (0.5) mg of each drug/kg given every 12 hours.

When platelet reactivity in response to collagen was determined to be inhibited by at least 50% in all medicated dogs, each dog (n = 15) was embolized with 7 dead adult heartworms to mimic heartworm adulticidal treatment. Platelet reactivity was monitored for 21 days after treatment, and drug dose was adjusted to maintain platelet inhibition by at least 50%. In embolized dogs, mean aspirin dosage was 17 (± 14) mg/kg given once daily. Mean dosage of the aspirin/dipyridamole combination was 2.8 (± 1.3) mg of each drug/kg given every 12 hours.

All dogs (n = 15) were euthanatized 21 days after heartworm embolization. Each lung lobe was evaluated for severity of lesions and presence of organized or fibrinous thrombi. Lesion severity in the aspirin- and aspirin/dipyridamole-treated dogs was not significantly different from that in control dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ticlopidine hydrochloride was evaluated for its effectiveness in inhibiting platelet aggregation and serotonin release in 5 laboratory Beagles before and after heart-worm implantation with 7 adult Dirofilaria immitis, and after embolization with 7 dead heartworms to mimic what happens after heartworm adulticide treatment. Five other laboratory Beagles, similarly implanted and embolized with heartworms, were used as nonmedicated controls. During the heartworm-negative stage, the dosage of ticlopidine that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (adp)-induced platelet aggregation in 5 dogs by at least 50% after 5 days of treatment was 62 mg/kg of body weight once a day. In the same dogs implanted with 7 adult heartworms 21 days previously, mean (± sd) ticlopidine dosage required to obtain similar results was 71 (± 13) mg/kg given once daily. During the 21 days after dead heartworms were implanted in heartworm-infected dogs, mean ticlopidine dosage was 108 (± 35) mg/kg (range, 62 to 150 mg/kg). Ticlopidine treatment was associated with increased platelet numbers in all 5 dogs during the heartworm-negative stage and in 4 of 5 dogs during the heartworm implantation and heartworm embolization stages. Mean platelet volume tended to decrease as platelet numbers increased. At necropsy, gross and histologic pulmonary lesions were less severe in ticlopidine-treated dogs than in nonmedicated control dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of treatment with a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on healing of open and sutured wounds, clinicopathologic variables, and CNS activity of dogs.

Animals

12 adult female Beagles.

Procedure

Open and sutured wounds were created in the skin of the trunk of the dogs. Dogs were divided into 2 groups. One group received PEMF treatment and 1 group served as untreated (control) dogs. The PEMF-treated dogs received treatment twice a day starting the day before surgery and lasting through day 21 after surgery. Wounds were evaluated by use of tensiometry, planimetry, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and histologic examination. Clinicopathologic variables and electroencephalographic tracings were also evaluated.

Results

Use of PEMF treatment resulted in significantly enhanced epithelialization of open wounds 10 and 15 days after surgery. Five days after surgery, wounds of control dogs had a negative value for wound contraction, whereas PEMF-treated wounds had a positive value. The PEMF treatment did not cause significant changes in short-term planimetric, perfusion, tensiometric, histologic, clinicopathologic, or electroencephalographic results.

Conclusions

The PEMF treatment enhanced wound epithelialization in open cutaneous wounds and provided indications of early contraction without significant short-term changes in other variables. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1177-1181)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-year-old 509-kg (1,120-lb) Tennessee Walking Horse mare was evaluated because of bilateral mucosanguinous nasal discharge, intermittent right-sided epistaxis, and worsening dyspnea of 9 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Multiple masses in the nasopharynx were detected via endoscopic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens of 1 mass revealed round yeasts with thick nonstaining capsules and occasional narrow-based budding that resembled cryptococcal organisms.

Treatment and Outcome—Oral administration of fluconazole and organic ethylenediamine dihydriodide and intermittent intralesional injections with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and formalin resulted in resolution of lesions for a period of 2.5 years. The horse then developed exophthalmos, recurring clinical signs, and extensive nasopharyngeal masses. The masses were surgically debulked via a large frontonasal bone flap, and the horse was treated with IV injections of amphotericin B and long-term oral administration of fluconazole. Clinical signs did not recur in the following 2-year period. A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made following cytologic and histologic evaluations of the masses; results of serologic analysis and fungal culture confirmed infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.

Clinical Relevance—Cryptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract in horses has previously been described as a uniformly fatal disease. As this case report illustrates, medical and surgical treatment of sinonasal cryptococcal granulomas in horses may be successful, but the importance of long-term follow-up and the potential for disease recrudescence should be considered. As efficacious antifungal agents become less expensive, their increased use will likely decrease mortality rates in horses with fungal infections.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association