Objective—To determine the prevalence of cystine uroliths in domestic ferrets with urolithiasis and determine whether age, breed, sex, reproductive status, anatomic location, and season are risk factors associated with cystine urolith formation.
Sample—Records of 435 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with uroliths submitted for analyses between 1992 and 2009, of which 70 were cystine uroliths.
Procedures—Specific descriptive information was obtained about each ferret to determine whether specific risk factors were associated with the development of cystine uroliths.
Results—Cystine uroliths comprised 70 of the 435 (16%) uroliths. Cystine uroliths were more common in male (n = 54) than in female (16) ferrets. All cystine uroliths were retrieved from the lower portion of the urinary tract (bladder and urethra [n = 67]) or were voided (3); none of the uroliths were retrieved from the upper portion of the urinary tract (kidney and ureters).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Awareness of the prevalence of cystine uroliths along with knowledge of etiologic, demographic, and environmental risk and protective factors for urolithiasis may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that result in earlier detection of cystinuria. Genetic factors associated with this disease have not yet been reported in ferrets, but a familial pattern of inheritance determined to be a major underlying factor in cystine urolithiasis in dogs and humans suggests that this may be a factor in ferrets and that the parent stock of ferrets in the present study may have been inbred.
Objective—To identify demographic or signalment factors associated with calcium carbonate urolith formation in goats.
Design—Retrospective case series and case-control study.
Animals—354 goats with calcium carbonate uroliths (case animals) and 16,366 goats without urinary tract disease (control animals).
Procedures—Medical records of the Minnesota Urolith Center were reviewed to identify case goats for which samples were submitted between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2012. Control goats evaluated at US veterinary teaching hospitals in the same time period were identified by searching Veterinary Medical Database records. Age, breed, sex, reproductive status, geographic location, season, and anatomic location of collected uroliths were analyzed to identify risk or protective factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis.
Results—Nigerian dwarf goats had higher odds of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did Pygmy goats (reference group). Several breeds had lower odds of this finding, compared with Pygmy goats; odds were lowest for mixed, Anglo-Nubian, and Toggenburg breeds. Breeds of African origin (Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf, and Boer) comprised 146 of 275 (53%) case goats with data available. Goats of African descent had a higher risk of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did goats of non-African descent (reference group). Males and neutered goats had higher odds of calcium carbonate urolithiasis, compared with females and sexually intact goats, respectively. Age category, geographic location, and season were associated with detection of calcium carbonate uroliths.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats with calcium carbonate uroliths were typically neutered males, > 1 year of age, and of African descent. This study identified factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis in goats; however, these associations do not allow conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships.
Objective—To confirm that the predominant mineral type in naturally occurring uroliths in ferrets is struvite; to determine whether age, breed, sex, reproductive status, geographic location, season, and anatomic location are risk factors associated with urolith formation in ferrets; to compare features of struvite uroliths in cats with those in ferrets; and to determine whether there is a logical evidence-based rationale for clinical trials of the safety and efficacy of diet-induced dissolution of struvite uroliths in ferrets.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—408 ferrets with uroliths (272 struvite uroliths) from the Minnesota Urolith Center, and 6,528 control ferrets from the Veterinary Medical Database.
Procedures—Historical information was obtained about each ferret. The association between proposed risk factors and outcome (struvite urolith formation) was assessed.
Results—Sterile struvite was the predominant mineral in uroliths in ferrets. Neutered male ferrets had a significantly increased risk of developing sterile struvite uroliths. A significant association was also found between increasing age and the detection of struvite uroliths. Struvite uroliths in ferrets were more likely to be retrieved from the lower urinary tract than from the upper urinary tract.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of predominant mineral type in uroliths along with insight into etiologic, demographic, and environmental risk and protective factors for urolithiasis may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that result in earlier detection of uroliths in ferrets. Modification of risk factors, including dietary risk factors, may help to minimize urolith formation, dissolve existing uroliths, and minimize urolith recurrence.