To determine the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin following IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) in koi (Cyprinus carpio).
69 healthy adult koi housed in a 980-L flow-through-system tank.
3 fish were kept as untreated controls, and the remaining 66 fish were assigned to 11 treatment groups with 6 fish/group. Fish in the treatment groups were given a single dose of danofloxacin (10 mg/kg) IM in the left epaxial musculature. Fifteen, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 4, 12, 24, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after administration of danofloxacin, fish in each treatment group were euthanized, and blood samples and samples of liver, spleen, gill, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin and muscle, and scales were collected. Plasma and tissue drug concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Tissues from the untreated control fish and fish euthanized 144 hours after danofloxacin administration were examined histologically.
Maximum plasma concentration (mean, 8,315.7 ng/mL) was reached approximately 45 minutes after danofloxacin administration; plasma elimination half-life was 15 hours. Danofloxacin was detected in all examined tissues from all 6 fish euthanized 15 minutes after drug administration and was detected in some tissues from 3 of the 6 fish euthanized 144 hours after drug administration. For all tissues, results of histologic examination were unremarkable.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) of danofloxacin in koi resulted in rapid absorption, with maximum plasma concentration reached approximately 45 minutes after drug administration; the drug could still be detected in some tissues 144 hours after administration.
OBJECTIVE To describe a technique for endoscopic evaluation of the coelomic viscera of koi (Cyprinus carpio) and to evaluate the ability to visually examine coelomic structures by use of an approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle.
ANIMALS 16 subadult koi.
PROCEDURES Koi were anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate. Coelioscopic examination was performed via a ventral midline incisional approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm 30° oblique endoscope within a 4.8-mm operating sheath and infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used. Ease of entry into the coelomic cavity and visual examination of structures were scored for each fish. Fish were euthanized 2 or 8 weeks after the procedure, and necropsy was performed.
RESULTS The coelioscopic procedure was tolerated well, and all koi recovered uneventfully. For all fish, ease of entry and visual examination scores of the liver, intestines, gonads, heart, and anterior kidney were satisfactory to excellent. Visual examination of the posterior kidney and swim bladder was satisfactory to difficult, whereas the spleen and gallbladder were not visually identified. No significant differences were noted in entry or visual examination scores between the cranial and caudal approaches or between sexes. Minor complications included mild hemorrhage, rupture of the gonadal capsule, formation of adhesions between the viscera and incision site, and delayed healing of the incision.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diagnostic coelioscopy of koi appeared to be safe and effective. This procedure could have potential for use in examination of coelomic structures and disease diagnosis.
To evaluate the effect of a multidose acyclovir protocol on koi herpesvirus (KHV) viral load and mortality in a cohabitation challenge.
180 koi fish.
Forty fish (shedders) were immersed in a 0.5 KHV plaque-forming units/mL static bath for 8 hours. Mock shedders were treated similarly but exposed to cell culture media. KHV shedders were then transferred into 8 tanks (5 shedders per tank) containing 10 naïve fish (cohabitants) each. Fish in the acyclovir group (AT) received a 10 mg/kg acyclovir intracoelomic injection 1, 3, and 6 days after the first confirmed KHV mortality. Positive controls (PC) were treated similarly but received sterile saline injections. Negative controls (NC) were exposed to mock shedders. Morbidity and mortality were evaluated daily for 50 days post-challenge. Quantitative PCR was used to determine viral load in the gill biopsies of shedders and cohabitants collected at days 19 (T1), 22 (T2), 25 (T3), 34 (T4), and 50 (T5) post-challenge.
Survival curves analyzed by the Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon method revealed a delayed onset of mortalities and a significantly lower KHV load at T2 and T3 detected in AT cohabitant fish (P = .042) compared to PC group. However, there were no significant differences in overall mortality or viral loads at T5.
The acyclovir protocol used in this study did not control viral infection or mortality at the end of the 50-day trial. Shorter intervals between injections could improve outcomes, but the additional stress inflicted by handling should be considered. Exploring other therapeutic alternatives and doses is warranted.
Wildfires are a serious and expanding threat in western North America, and wildfire encroachment on human populations leads to widespread evacuation and emergency housing operations for residents and their companion animals and livestock. Veterinarians are frequently part of wildfire response efforts and are called upon to assist in rescue, evacuation, and emergency housing operations as well as to provide medical care for evacuated animals. Although veterinarians are likely familiar with the principles of transporting and housing terrestrial animals, emergency response for aquatic companion animals presents unique logistic challenges. Veterinarians familiar with aquatic animal evacuation, housing, and care prior to a wildfire response can extend the scope of disaster recovery. This report offers general guidance for rescuing, evacuating, housing, and caring for aquatic animals in the wake of a wildfire.