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  • Author or Editor: Eryn A. Shipley x
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An 11-year-old 4.2-kg (9.2-lb) neutered male Persian cat was admitted to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for dental prophylaxis. The cat had a history of liver cysts, odontoclastic resorptive lesions, and intermittent diarrhea. On thoracic auscultation, the cat's heart rate was 180 beats/min with a regular rhythm. Mild dental calculi were present, but the remainder of the physical examination findings were unremarkable.

Diagnostic procedures included a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and assessment of serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine. The CBC revealed mild lymphopenia (1,452 lymphocytes/μL; reference range, 1,500 to 7,000 lymphocytes/μL), but all other variables

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether pimobendan has in vitro antithrombotic properties through inhibition of platelets in canine blood samples.

Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from each dog into tubes containing hirudin or sodium citrate. Pimobendan was added to blood samples (final concentration, 0.0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0μM) containing hirudin prior to undergoing collagen- and ADP-induced whole blood impedance aggregometry. Plasma thromboxane concentrations were measured after platelet aggregation. Pimobendan was also added to blood samples (0.0, 0.01, or 10.0μM) containing sodium citrate prior to thromboelastographic evaluation.

Results—Compared with findings for 0.0μM pimobendan, composite platelet aggregation (area under the curve [AUC]) and maximal platelet aggregation (aggregation units [AUs]) at 10.0μM pimobendan were significantly decreased for collagen-induced aggregation (AUC, 349.7 ± 58.4 vs 285.1 ± 72.2; maximal platelet aggregation, 196.2 ± 25.8 AUs vs 161.5 ± 38.0 AUs), and the AUC and velocity of aggregation at 10.0μM pimobendan were significantly decreased for ADP-induced aggregation (AUC, 268.5 ± 35.1 vs 213.4 ± 77.2; velocity of aggregation, 15.7 ± 2.9 AUs/min vs 11.8 ± 3.5 AUs/min). Pimobendan had no significant effect on plasma thromboxane concentration or thromboelastographic variables, regardless of concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro, pimobendan had an antiplatelet effect in canine blood samples at a concentration 1,000-fold higher than that clinically achievable. These antiplatelet properties do not appear to contribute to the positive clinical profile of the drug in dogs. Pimobendan administration would not appear to confer a risk for bleeding and does not have to be avoided in dogs with thrombocytopenia or those concurrently receiving antiplatelet drugs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish practical doses and administration frequencies of fondaparinux for cats that would approximate human therapeutic peak and trough plasma anti–factor Xa activities for thromboprophylaxis (TP) and thrombosis treatment (TT) protocols.

Animals—6 healthy adult purpose-bred cats.

Procedures—Dosage protocols for TP and TT were selected on the basis of a single compartment pharmacokinetic model incorporating data from humans but modified to account for the higher body weight–normalized cardiac output of cats. Fondaparinux was administered at 0.06 mg/kg, SC, every 12 hours (TP) for 7 days in one session, and 0.20 mg/kg, SC, every 12 hours (TT) for 7 days in another, with a minimum of 1 week separating the sessions. Plasma anti–factor Xa activity was measured before fondaparinux administration (day 1) and at 2 (peak) and 12 (trough) hours after drug administration on days 1 and 7. Platelet aggregation and thromobelastographic (TEG) parameters were also measured 2 hours after drug administration on day 7.

Results—Peak plasma anti–factor Xa activities on day 7 for TP (median, 0.59 mg/L; range, 0.36 to 0.77 mg/L) and TT (median, 1.66 mg/L; range, 1.52 to 2.00 mg/L) protocols were within therapeutic ranges for humans. However, only the TP protocol achieved trough anti–factor Xa activity considered therapeutic in humans (median, 0.19 mg/L; range, 0.00 to 0.37 mg/L) on day 7. There were significant changes in the TEG parameters at peak for the TT protocol, suggesting a hypocoagulable state. No significant changes in platelet aggregation were evident for either protocol.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A fondaparinux dosage of 0.06 or 0.20 mg/kg, SC, every 12 hours, was sufficient to achieve a peak plasma anti–factor Xa activity in cats that has been deemed therapeutic in humans. This study provided preliminary data necessary to perform fondaparinux dose-determination and clinical efficacy studies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research