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  • Author or Editor: Erinne Branter x
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To describe techniques and outcomes for dogs and cats undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy (ENL) for the removal of complicated nephroliths.


11 dogs and 1 cat (n = 16 renal units) with complicated nephroliths that underwent ENL via a surgically assisted ENL approach (12 renal units) or a percutaneous nephrolithotomy approach (4 renal units) between December 2005 and June 2017.


Data were obtained from the medical records regarding preoperative, operative, and postoperative findings. Follow-up information on complications and outcomes was also collected.


Indications for nephrolith removal included massive calculi displacing parenchyma (n = 7), recurrent urinary tract infections (5), and ureteral outflow obstruction (4). Median nephrolith diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.7 cm). Nephrolith composition differed among patients; calcium oxalate was the most common type (n = 7 [including 2 mixed nephroliths containing ≥ 60% calcium oxalate]). Following ENL (median duration, 180 minutes), 15 of 16 renal units were completely nephrolith free. Procedure-related complications included renal puncture-associated hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion (n = 1), renal capsule tear (1), and ureteral puncture (1); all were managed without adverse consequence. Five of 12 patients remained alive at the final follow-up (median, 557 days after ENL), and none died from the procedure.


ENL as performed was safe and effective in removing complicated nephroliths in a renal-sparing manner for the patients in this study. This procedure requires technical training and could be considered for the treatment of complicated nephrolithiasis in dogs and possibly cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe the use of sclerotherapy for the renal-sparing treatment of idiopathic renal hematuria (IRH) in dogs and report clinical outcomes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—6 dogs (8 renal pelvises) with IRH.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent sclerotherapy were reviewed. Each ureterovesicular junction was identified cystoscopically to determine the side of bleeding, and a retrograde ureteropyelogram was performed with endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A ureteropelvic junction balloon was used for ureteral occlusion, and pelvis filling volumes were recorded. A povidone iodine mixture, followed by a sterile silver nitrate solution, was infused into the renal pelvis. A double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed after the procedure. Information on preprocedure and postprocedure biochemical changes, imaging parameters, and clinical outcomes was obtained.

Results—6 dogs (5 males and 1 female) had sclerotherapy for unilateral (4) or bilateral (2) bleeding. Five were right-sided and 3 were left-sided. The median age and weight of dogs were 3 years and 42.4 kg (93.28 lb), respectively. Median procedure time was 150 minutes. One dog that did not have a ureteral stent placed following the procedure developed short-term signs of renal pain and pyelectasis. Cessation of macroscopic hematuria occurred in 4 of 6 dogs (median, 6 hours). Two additional dogs improved moderately. Median follow-up time was 8 months (range, 3.5 to 20.5 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical sclerotherapy for IRH was safe and effective. Local sclerotherapy for IRH in dogs could be considered a valuable and minimally invasive renal-sparing treatment over ureteronephrectomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association