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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old neutered female Labrador Retriever with a 3- to 4-month history of abdominal distention was referred for evaluation and treatment.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Evaluation of a peritoneal fluid specimen collected by the referring veterinarian indicated a pure transudate. At admission, transabdominal ultrasonography revealed microhepatica, dilation of the intrahepatic and mesenteric vasculature, peritoneal effusion, and multiple aberrant blood vessels. A large, high-flow hepatic arteriovenous malformation (HAVM) with secondary portal hypertension, peritoneal effusion, multiple acquired portosystemic shunts, and microhepatica was evident on CT angiography.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Transfemoral hepatic arteriography and staged coil and glue (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) embolization of the complex arteriovenous malformation nidus and central main left hepatic artery resulted in ablation of the lesion, restoration of arterial blood flow to the contralateral hepatic lobes, and resolution of the peritoneal effusion. The dog remained without clinical signs of hepatic disease until it was euthanized 5 months after treatment for an unrelated condition.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Successful endovascular management of a HAVM was accomplished by means of coil and glue embolization in the patient of this report. Dogs with comparable HAVMs may benefit from similar minimally invasive treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To develop 3D models of larynges to compare arytenoid abduction measurements between specimens and models, and to investigate the anatomic feasibility of placing an implant across the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) with or without arthrotomy.


Cadaveric equine larynges (n = 9).


Equine larynges underwent sequential CT scans in a neutral position and with 2 arytenoid treatments: bilateral arytenoid abduction (ABD) and bilateral arytenoid abduction after left cricoarytenoid joint arthrotomy (ARTH). Soft tissue, cartilage, and luminal volume 3-dimensional models were generated. Rima glottidis cross-sectional area (CSA) and left-to-right quotient (LRQ) angles were measured on laryngeal specimens and models. Arytenoid translation, articular contact area, and length of modeled implants placed across the CAJ were measured on models. Data were analyzed using paired t test or ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test or non-parametric equivalents (P < .05).


ARTH CSA was larger for laryngeal specimens than models (P = .0096). There was no difference in all other measures of CSA and LRQ angle between treatment groups or between specimens and models. There was no difference between ABD and ARTH groups for arytenoid cartilage translation, contact area, and implant length. The articular contact area was sufficient for modeled implant placement across the CAJ with a narrow range of implant lengths (17.59 mm to 23.87 mm) across larynges with or without arthrotomy.


These results support further investigation of a CT-guided, minimally invasive surgical procedure. Future studies will evaluate the outcomes of the new procedure for technical precision, biomechanical stability, and post-operative success rates for horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research