A 1-year-old 39.0-kg (85.8-lb) sexually intact male Labrador Retriever was admitted to the internal medicine service of the veterinary teaching hospital at Mississippi State University for evaluation of coughing of 1 month's duration.
Three months prior to referral, a cutaneous mass was excised from the patient's thoracic wall. The mass was on the right side of the ventral portion of the thorax. It was described as a small draining tract that contained white necrotic tissue. Cytologic evaluation of an impression smear obtained from the draining lesion revealed the presence of neutrophils. The dog was treated with antimicrobials for approximately
A 3-year-old 22.7-kg (49.9-lb) spayed female Boxer was evaluated because of a 3-week history of fever, lethargy, and signs of abdominal pain. The owner reported that clinical signs began shortly after the patient underwent an elective ovariohysterectomy.
At the time of hospital admission, findings on physical examination were unremarkable except for signs of pain on abdominal palpation. A CBC revealed a mature neutrophilia (13,464 segmented neutrophils/μL; reference range, 3,000 to 11,500 segmented neutrophils/μL). No abnormalities were detected on serum biochemical analysis.
Abdominal radiography was performed (Figure 1).
Right lateral (A) and ventrodorsal (B) radiographic views
A 13-year-old 7.1-kg (15.6-1b) sexually intact female Maltese had a 9-month history of a left inguinal hernia. On recent palpation by the referring veterinarian, the content within the hernial sac was suspected to be the urinary bladder and was reduced into the abdomen.
At the time of referral and hospital admission, the hernia was no longer reducible and had increased in size since being examined by the referring veterinarian. On physical examination, the patient was bright, alert, and responsive. A bilobed inguinal mass (8 × 8 cm) was noted; it was firm, rounded, and movable but could not be
An 11-year-old 3.5-kg (7.7-lb) spayed female domestic longhair cat was referred for evaluation of pleural fluid, which was discovered (thoracic radiography followed by thoracocentesis) at an emergency center on the previous day when the cat was examined because of a 1-day history of respiratory distress characterized by open-mouth breathing. Two weeks previously, the cat had been evaluated by the referring veterinarian because the owner noticed that the cat had decreased activity and seemed to show signs of discomfort in the areas of its pelvis and tail base. Tramadol was prescribed, laser treatment was performed on 3 separate days, and
A 2.5-month-old female Angus calf was evaluated for an acute onset of hind limb paresis. The calf had been unable to rise for several hours and on initial evaluation was alert and responsive but sluggish. The calf was able to rise on its forelimbs and did attempt to suckle. The calf's rectal temperature was 39.2°C (102.5°F; reference range, 36.7° to 39.1°C [98.1° to 102.4°F]), heart rate was 120 beats/min (reference range, 60 to 80 beats/min), and respiratory rate was 24 breaths/min (reference range, 30 to 50 breaths/min). No rumen contractions were detected; however, increased respiratory effort and bruxism were
A 7-week-old 1.0-kg sexually intact female Jack Russell Terrier was referred for further evaluation and treatment of tachypnea, intermittent coughing, and signs of exercise intolerance that had persisted since the owner acquired the puppy a week earlier. The owner reported that the puppy was up-to-date on its vaccinations and had received pyrantel pamoate and sulfadimethoxine 2 weeks earlier.
On referral examination, the puppy was bright, alert, responsive, normothermic, tachycardic (172 beats/ min; reference range, 80 to 160 beats/min), tachypneic (60 breaths/min; reference range, 15 to 35 breaths/ min), and had a body condition score of 5 on a scale
A 12-year-old sexually intact male Quarter Horse was examined for diffuse subcutaneous emphysema and reluctance to walk. Physical examination revealed a 25-cm-long laceration of the left axillary region that had been present for several days. The patient was severely dyspneic with a respiratory rate of 80 breaths/min and tachycardic with a heart rate of 120 beats/min. Mucous membranes were cyanotic with a capillary refill time of 3 seconds. The rectal temperature was within reference limits. Auscultation of the thorax was compromised as a result of the subcutaneous emphysema, but normal airway sounds were absent in the dorsal aspect of
OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA).
DESIGN Prospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses.
PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses,
RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.