An 11-month-old mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 2-day history of acute-onset, intermittent vocalization and collapse several days after ingesting metallic wire foreign material.
Physical examination findings were initially unremarkable. After a brief period of hospitalization, the patient acutely developed non-weight-bearing lameness with signs of severe pain localized to the left thoracic limb and inability or refusal to rise. Results of cervical, thoracic, and abdominal radiography revealed a linear metallic foreign body at the thoracic inlet and a single metallic foreign body in the cranial aspect of the abdomen. Neuropathic pain at the level of the left brachial plexus was suspected. Results of a subsequent CT scan were consistent with a metallic foreign body in the left axilla with associated abscess formation and neuritis and an additional metallic foreign body within the omental fat near the pyloroduodenal junction.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to facilitate localization and surgical removal of the axillary foreign body. The intra-abdominal foreign body was removed laparoscopically. Complete resolution of clinical signs was observed before discharge from the hospital the following day. On telephone follow-up 8 months after surgery, the owners reported the patient had no signs of lameness or complications.
Migrating metallic foreign bodies may be identified as incidental findings with the potential to cause harm in the future or may be a cause for severe clinical signs. Migrating foreign bodies should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients reported to have acute collapse or lameness and consistent clinical history.
To report the fluoroscopic removal or repositioning of urinary tract implants in dogs and cats by use of an endovascular snare system (ESS) and to report procedural usefulness and complications in dogs and cats.
3 cats and 14 dogs.
A medical records review was performed to identify dogs and cats that underwent removal or repositioning of urinary tract foreign bodies or implants by use of an ESS with fluoroscopic guidance at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2013 to 2019.
Dogs had a median weight of 25 kg (55 lb) with a range of 3.5 to 60.6 kg (7.7 to 133.3 lb), and cats had a median weight of 5 kg (11 lb) with a range of 4.2 to 5.4 kg (9.2 to 11.9 lb). By use of an ESS, 12 patients (2 cats and 10 dogs) underwent transurethral retrieval of retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents, 2 dogs underwent transurethral ureteral stent repositioning, 1 cat and 2 dogs underwent transnephric retrieval of ureteral stents, and 1 dog underwent cystoscopic-assisted transureteral ureteral stent retrieval. All procedures were successfully performed, and there were no associated procedural complications.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents were successfully retrieved by use of an ESS in dogs and cats transurethrally or with an open or percutaneous transnephric approach and fluoroscopic guidance. These techniques should be considered as an alternative or adjunct to more invasive methods for implant retrieval or manipulation.
To document outcomes of thoracoscopic treatment of idiopathic chylothorax (IC) in dogs with and without constrictive pericardial physiology (CPP) and evaluate patterns of chyle flow redistribution after thoracic duct ligation (TDL).
26 client-owned dogs.
In this prospective cohort study, echocardiography and cardiac catheterization were performed to document CPP in dogs with IC. Thoracoscopic TDL with pericardiectomy was performed if CPP was present (TDL/P group). Dogs without evidence of CPP underwent thoracoscopic TDL alone (TDL group). Dogs underwent preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 3-month postoperative CT lymphangiography studies when possible. Perioperative morbidity, resolution and late recurrence rates, and long-term outcome were recorded.
17 dogs underwent TDL, and 9 underwent TDL/P. Twenty-five of 26 (96%) survived the perioperative period. One dog died from ventricular fibrillation during pericardiectomy. Resolution rates for TDL and TDL/P were 94% and 88%, respectively (P = .55), with 1 late recurrence occurring in the TDL group in a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 4 to 60 months). On 3-month postoperative CT lymphangiography studies, ongoing chyle flow past the ligation site was demonstrated in 5 of 17 dogs, of which 1 dog developed recurrence at 13 months postoperatively. In 15 of 17 dogs, chylous redistribution after TDL was principally by retrograde flow to the lumbar lymphatic plexus.
In dogs without evidence of CPP, TDL alone was associated with a very good prognosis for treatment of IC. In the absence of CPP, the additional benefit of pericardiectomy in the treatment of IC is questionable.
To report the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for resection of unilateral adrenal masses and to document risk factors for conversion and peri- and postoperative morbidity.
255 client-owned dogs.
Dogs were included if LA was attempted for resection of a unilateral adrenal mass. Medical records were evaluated and relevant data were reported, including complications, conversion, perioperative death, and long-term outcomes. Signalment, clinicopathological data, and surgical experience were factors statistically evaluated for possible associations with capsular penetration during surgery, conversion, surgical time, duration of hospital stay, death prior to discharge, mass recurrence, and survival time.
155 dogs had left-sided tumors, and 100 had right-sided tumors. Conversion to an open approach was performed in 9.4% of cases. Capsular penetration (19.2%) and major hemorrhage (5.4%) were the most prevalent intraoperative complications. Of the dogs operated on, 94.9% were discharged from the hospital. Lesion side, portion of the gland affected, and surgeon experience influenced surgical time. Conversion rate increased with increasing body condition score and lesion size. Risk of death prior to discharge increased with increasing lesion size. Risk of conversion and death prior to discharge were lower when performed by more experienced surgeons. Capsular penetration during LA increased the risk of tumor recurrence.
LA for resection of unilateral adrenal masses is associated with excellent outcomes in experienced centers. Surgeons with greater experience with LA have lower surgical times, conversion rates, and risk of death prior to discharge.
To conduct a retrospective multi-institutional study reporting short- and long-term outcomes of adrenalectomy in patients presenting with acute hemorrhage secondary to spontaneous adrenal rupture.
59 dogs and 3 cats.
Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing adrenalectomy between 2000 and 2021 for ruptured adrenal masses were reviewed. Data collected included clinical presentation, preoperative diagnostics, surgical report, anesthesia and hospitalization findings, histopathology, adjuvant treatments, and long-term outcome (recurrence, metastasis, and survival).
Median time from hospital admission to surgery was 3 days, with 34% of surgeries being performed emergently (within 1 day of presentation). Need for intraoperative blood transfusion was significantly associated with emergent surgery and presence of active intraoperative hemorrhage. The short-term (≤ 14 days) complication and mortality rates were 42% and 21%, respectively. Negative prognostic factors for short-term survival included emergent surgery, intraoperative hypotension, and performing additional surgical procedures. Diagnoses included adrenocortical neoplasia (malignant [41%], benign [12%], and undetermined [5%]), pheochromocytoma (38%), a single case of adrenal fibrosis and hemorrhage (2%), and a single case of hemangiosarcoma (2%). Local recurrence and metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma were confirmed in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. Overall median survival time was 574 days and 900 days when short-term mortality was censored. No significant relationship was found between histopathological diagnosis and survival.
Adrenalectomy for ruptured adrenal gland masses was associated with similar short- and long-term outcomes as compared with previously reported nonruptured cases. If hemodynamic stability can be achieved, delaying surgery and limiting additional procedures appear indicated to optimize short-term survival.