Case Description—4 captive adult Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) at 3 zoologic institutions were examined routinely or because of dyspnea or lethargy.
Clinical Findings—All birds had marked hepatomegaly. Two birds had dyspnea caused by compression of air sacs by the enlarged liver, and 1 bird had generalized weakness and lethargy. Three birds had distended coelomic cavities, and 3 birds were thin or had lost weight. There were no consistent abnormalities in blood analytes. Results of most ancillary diagnostic tests such as acid-fast staining of cloacal or fecal swab specimens and culture of feces for acid-fast bacteria were negative. Results of examination of hepatic biopsy speci-mens in 2 of 4 birds were suggestive of mycobacteriosis.
Treatment and Outcome—3 birds died or were euthanized soon after diagnosis. One kingfisher was isolated and monitored for 4 months without treatment and died during anesthesia for disease monitoring. Postmortem histologic examination revealed histiocytic hepatitis and acid-fast bacteria in all 4 birds. Bacteriologic culture of liver specimens yielded Mycobacterium simiae complex in all 4 birds.
Clinical Relevance—Infection with M simiae complex should be considered in ill Micronesian kingfishers, and further monitoring is warranted to determine whether this is an emerging pathogen in this species.
Case Description—A female Aldabra tortoise (Geochelone gigantea) was evaluated because of focal necrosis of the carapace.
Clinical Findings—Debridement revealed a 14.5 × 11.5-cm area of shell necrosis, deep abscess formation, and osteomyelitis involving bacterial (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas spp) and fungal pathogens.
Treatment and Outcome—Following extensive debridement, vacuum-assisted closure incorporating silver-impregnated bandaging materials was used. The wound was considered healed after 55 days, at which time a layer of epidermal tissue with progressing keratinization was present, with smooth underlying ossification. Keratinization with normal pigmentation continued over the next 67 days.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that vacuum-assisted closure with silver-impreg-nated bandaging materials may provide advantages over traditional methods in the treatment of shell lesions in chelonians, including faster wound healing, improved cosmetic appearance of the healed wound, superior control of microbial contamination, and lower overall treatment costs.