Objective—To determine efficacy of providing drinking water medicated with doxycycline for treatment of spiral bacterial infection in cockatiels.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—18 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) naturally infected with spiral bacteria.
Procedures—Spiral bacterial infection was diagnosed by means of cytologic examination of swab specimens from the choana and oropharynx. Eleven birds (treatment group) were given drinking water to which doxycycline hyclate had been added at a concentration of 400 mg/L for 30 days; the remaining 7 birds (control group) were given unmedicated water. After completion of the study, 6 control birds were treated with drinking water medicated with doxycycline for 21 days.
Results—Daily mean plasma doxycycline concentration for birds in the treatment group ranged from 2.26 to 2.86 Mg/mL (overall range, 0.83 to 4.34 Mg/mL). All treated birds were negative for spiral bacteria after treatment for 21 days and remained negative when examined 160 days after treatment ended. Control birds remained positive for spiral bacteria. Control birds treated with doxycycline after completion of the study were negative for spiral bacteria after treatment for 21 days and 30 days after treatment ended. No clinically important adverse effects were associated with treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that providing drinking water to which doxycycline had been added at a concentration of 400 mg/L was effective in eliminating spiral bacterial infections in cockatiels.
Procedures—A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.
Case Description—A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was examined because of presumptive lidocaine intoxication. Thirty minutes earlier, the cat had received an SC injection of approximately 140 mg of lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb]) to facilitate closure of a wound on the left pelvic limb.
Clinical Findings—Initial physical examination revealed severe lethargy and respiratory distress; erratic, poor-quality pulses with severe hypotension; and pulmonary edema.
Treatment and Outcome—Initial supportive treatment included administration of oxygen and IV administration of lactated Ringer's solution. Additional treatment with a 20% lipid emulsion (1.5 mL/kg [0.68 mL/lb], IV) delivered over a 30-minute period resulted in dramatic improvement in cardiovascular and behavioral variables. No adverse effects from lipid emulsion were detected on routine hematologic evaluation, thoracic radiography, or computed tomography.
Clinical Relevance—IV administration of a lipid emulsion was used in the treatment of lidocaine intoxication in a cat. Rapid infusion of a lipid emulsion may be a therapeutic option for veterinary patients with toxicosis attributable to local anesthetics or other lipid-soluble drugs.