Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: Erik R. Wisner x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine results of diagnostic testing, including detection of nasal or frontal sinus fungal plaques, in dogs with nasal aspergillosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—46 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on computed tomographic findings; rhinoscopic findings, including whether fungal plaques were seen in the nasal cavity; results of frontal sinus trephination and sinuscopy, including whether fungal plaques were seen in the frontal sinus; and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens.

Results—In 38 (83%) dogs, fungal plaques were seen in the nasal cavity during rhinoscopy, whereas in the remaining 8 (17%), fungal plaques were not seen in the nasal cavity but were seen in the frontal sinus. Duration of clinical signs, proportions of dogs in which the referring veterinarian had performed a nasal examination prior to referral, proportions of dogs with computed tomographic evidence of nasal cavity cavitation or sinus involvement, and proportions of dogs with rhinoscopic evidence of destructive rhinitis were not significantly different between dogs with nasal fungal plaques and dogs with fungal plaques only in the frontal sinus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm that frontal sinus involvement is common in dogs with nasal aspergillosis and suggest that frontal sinus trephination and sinuscopy may aid in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in dogs, particularly dogs with rhinoscopic evidence of destructive rhinitis and computed tomographic evidence of sinus involvement that lack detectable fungal plaques in the nasal cavity.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 11-year-old castrated male Tibetan Mastiff was evaluated because of a visibly enlarged blood vessel and progressively worsening swelling of the right hind limb.

Clinical Findings—On physical examination, the right hind limb was markedly larger than the left hind limb and the dog was minimally weight bearing on the affected limb. A bruit was auscultated over the affected region. Ultrasonography of the tarsal region of the right hind limb revealed an artery with turbulent flow that communicated with venous drainage. A CT scan confirmed the presence of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM).

Treatment and Outcome—Embolization of the AVM with a liquid embolic agent (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide) was elected. An arteriogram was performed prior to treatment and delineated the vessels that were targeted for embolization. The embolic agent was infused into the AVM, and a postinjection arteriogram confirmed complete occlusion of the AVM nidus and normal arterial flow to the paw with subsequent normal venous drainage. The circumference of the abnormal paw was 51 cm before the procedure and 22.9 cm at 4 weeks after the procedure. Additionally, the gait of the dog dramatically improved. No complications associated with the procedure developed.

Clinical Relevance—Peripheral AVMs in dogs are uncommon, and described treatment options are limited and generally associated with serious morbidity. A liquid embolic agent, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was successfully administered in this case, and no morbidity was observed secondary to the procedure. Clinical success was characterized by substantial improvement in limb swelling and marked improvement in the gait of the dog.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) gene in collagen matrix could safely promote bone formation in diaphyseal or subchondral bones of horses.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Amount, rate, and quality of bone healing for 13 weeks were determined by use of radiography, quantitative computed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis. Diaphyseal cortex and subchondral bone defects of metacarpi were filled with hPTH1-34 gene-activated matrix (GAM) or remained untreated. Joints were assessed on the basis of circumference, synovial fluid analysis, pain on flexion, lameness, and gross and histologic examination.

Results—Bone volume index was greater for cortical defects treated with hPTH1-34 GAM, compared with untreated defects. Bone production in cortical defects treated with hPTH1-34 GAM positively correlated with native bone formation in untreated defects. In contrast, less bone was detected in hPTH1-34 GAM-treated subchondral bone defects, compared with untreated defects, and histology confirmed poorer healing and residual collagen sponge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of hPTH1-34 GAM induced greater total bone, specifically periosteal bone, after 13 weeks of healing in cortical defects of horses. The hPTH1-34 GAM impeded healing of subchondral bone but was biocompatible with joint tissues. Promotion of periosteal bone formation may be beneficial for healing of cortical fractures in horses, but the delay in onset of bone formation may negate benefits. The hPTH1-34 GAM used in this study should not be placed in articular subchondral bone defects, but contact with articular surfaces is unlikely to cause short-term adverse effects. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1223–1232)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare quantitative densitometric computed tomography (CT), morphometric, and histologic data of normal lungs in dogs with similar parameters obtained after induction of an acute inflammatory response and determine whether CT densitometry correlated with histopathologic changes.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—After initial CT, 1 mL of 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 3 mL of autologous blood were instilled into the right middle (RM) and caudal segment of the left cranial (LCCd) lung lobes, respectively. Immediately and 24 hours after instillation, CT was repeated. At 24 hours, dogs were euthanatized and lungs were fixed and sampled for morphometric and histologic evaluation. The CT data were compared with lung morphology and morphometry by use of unpaired t tests. Comparison with lungs from control dogs was performed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients.

Results—Mean Hounsfield units (HU) from control and baseline HU from experimental dogs were identical. Immediately after instillation of HCl or blood, there was increased attenuation in both lobes. Autologous blood initially induced severe changes that almost completely resolved at 24 hours; HCl induced severe changes at 24 hours. Significant increases in percentage of parenchymal airspace and alveolar diameter resulted in decreased surface area-to-volume ratio in lobes receiving HCl. Histologic scores were significantly higher in the RM lobe, compared with controls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computed tomography attenuation correlated well with histomorphometry and histologic findings in this model. Lung lesions after autologous blood were transient and of limited severity. Lesions induced by HCl were severe; alterations in morphometric and histologic parameters were reflected in CT attenuation measurements. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1114–1123)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop protocols for helical computed tomography (CT) and axial high-resolution CT (HRCT) of lungs and correlate densitometric CT values with morphometric and histologic data for normal pulmonary tissue in dogs.

Animals—8 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—2 dogs were used to establish a protocol for helical CT and HRCT of lungs. Six dogs were used to acquire densitometric CT data regarding normal lungs. After the dogs were euthanatized, their lungs were fixed and sampled for morphometric and histologic evaluation. Four CT acquisitions were compared by means of paired t tests.

Results—For normal lung tissue of dogs, mean densitometric CT value obtained during helical CT scans reconstructed in a sharp algorithm was -846 Hounsfield units. Values obtained via helical CT or HRCT acquisitions and reconstructed with sharp or standard algorithms did not differ significantly. Morphometric analysis was used to determine the proportion of lung parenchymal (82%) and nonparenchymal tissue (18%). Alveolar size, estimated by mean linear intercept, was approximately 172 µm, and alveolar surface area-to-volume ratio was 0.024 to 0.026 µm–1. Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of normal lung tissue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Correlation of densitometric CT data with morphometric and histologic findings and the establishment of helical CT and HRCT protocols were attained; clinical use of this information may facilitate investigation of pulmonary disease in dogs. Sharp helical CT acquisitions were preferred because of better lung parenchyma detail and rapid image acquisitions, compared with HRCT. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:935–944)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the sensitivity and specificity of serologic evaluation and fungal culture of tissue for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—58 dogs with nasal discharge and 26 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs with nasal discharge were anesthetized and underwent computed tomography and rhinoscopy; nasal tissues were collected for histologic examination and fungal culture. Sera were assessed for antibodies against Aspergillus spp (healthy dog sera were used as negative control specimens). Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in dogs that had at least 2 of the following findings: computed tomographic characteristics consistent with aspergillosis, fungal plaques detected during rhinoscopy, and histologically detectable fungal hyphae in nasal tissue. Histologic characteristics of malignancy were diagnostic for neoplasia. Without evidence of neoplasia or fungal disease, nonfungal rhinitis was diagnosed.

Results—Among the 58 dogs, 21 had nasal aspergillosis, 25 had nonfungal rhinitis, and 12 had nasal neoplasia. Fourteen aspergillosis-affected dogs and 1 dog with nonfungal rhinitis had serum antibodies against Aspergillus spp. Fungal culture results were positive for Aspergillus spp only for 17 dogs with aspergillosis. With regard to aspergillosis diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 67%, 98%, 93%, and 84%, respectively, for serum anti-Aspergillus antibody determination and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively, for fungal culture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that seropositivity for Aspergillus spp and identification of Aspergillus spp in cultures of nasal tissue are highly suggestive of nasal aspergillosis in dogs; however, negative test results do not rule out nasal aspergillosis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of regional variation, interobserver variability, and vessel selection on quantitative vascular variables derived by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) of the brain of clinically normal dogs.

Animals—14 adult dogs with no evidence of CNS dysfunction.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups, and DCE-CT was performed at the level of the frontal lobe, rostral portion of the parietal-temporal lobes, caudal portions of the parietal-temporal lobes, or occipital lobe–cerebellum for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and permeability in gray and white matter for both a large and small artery were calculated and compared. Values among 3 observers and 4 regions of the brain were calculated and compared.

Results—Significant interobserver variability was detected for CBF and permeability in white matter. Values calculated for large and small arteries were correlated for CBV and CBF but not for permeability. Overall mean ± SD for CBF, CBV, and permeability in gray matter was 53.5 ± 27.7 mL/min/100 g, 2.9 ± 1.4 mL/100 g, and 1.4 ± 2.2 mL/min/100 g, respectively. Mean for CBF, CBV, and permeability in white matter was 44.2 ± 28.5 mL/min/100 g, 2.5 ± 1.5 mL/100 g, and 0.9 ± 0.7 mL/min/100 g, respectively. Values did not differ significantly among brain regions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant regional variations were not detected for quantitative vascular variables in the brain of clinically normal dogs. However, interobserver variability and vessel selection have an important role in variable estimation.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To provide a detailed description of the vascular anatomy of the distal portion of the forelimbs of horses by use of computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Sample Population—6 forelimbs of 5 horses and 1 forelimb from an equine cadaver; none of the horses had orthopedic or vascular disease.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized and CTA was conducted on the dependent forelimb. A catheter was inserted in the median artery, and contrast medium was infused at a rate of 3 mL/s. A computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to obtain contiguous slices from the region of the proximal sesamoid bones to the toe. All horses were allowed to recover from anesthesia. To help identify vessel patterns in the distal portion of the forelimb, the median artery and lateral palmar digital vein of a heparinized forelimb obtained from an equine cadaver were infused with red and blue polymethylmethacrylate and the distal portion of that forelimb was then sectioned to correspond to CTA images.

Results—Vessel patterns in CTA images matched vascular anatomic structures of the cadaver forelimb and were consistent with published anatomic structures. Major and minor vessels were consistently visible in CTA images of all horses. There were no complications reported in any horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of CTA provided a highly detailed depiction of the vasculature of the distal portion of the equine forelimb. This was a safe technique and should be useful in the evaluation of the blood supply to the distal portion of the forelimb. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1409–1420)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of body position on lung and air-sac volumes in anesthetized and spontaneously breathing red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals—6 adult red-tailed hawks (sex unknown).

Procedures—A crossover study design was used for quantitative estimation of lung and air-sac volumes in anesthetized hawks in 3 body positions: dorsal, right lateral, and sternal recumbency. Lung volume, lung density, and air-sac volume were calculated from helical computed tomographic (CT) images by use of software designed for volumetric analysis of CT data. Effects of body position were compared by use of repeated-measures ANOVA and a paired Student t test.

Results—Results for all pairs of body positions were significantly different from each other. Mean ± SD lung density was lowest when hawks were in sternal recumbency (–677 ± 28 CT units), followed by right lateral (–647 ± 23 CT units) and dorsal (–630 ± 19 CT units) recumbency. Mean lung volume was largest in sternal recumbency (28.6 ± 1.5 mL), followed by right lateral (27.6 ± 1.7 mL) and dorsal (27.0 ± 1.5 mL) recumbency. Mean partial air-sac volume was largest in sternal recumbency (27.0 ± 19.3 mL), followed by right lateral (21.9 ± 16.1 mL) and dorsal (19.3 ± 16.9 mL) recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In anesthetized red-tailed hawks, positioning in sternal recumbency resulted in the greatest lung and air-sac volumes and lowest lung density, compared with positioning in right lateral and dorsal recumbency. Additional studies are necessary to determine the physiologic effects of body position on the avian respiratory system.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research