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  • Author or Editor: Erica M. O'Donnell x
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OBJECTIVE To investigate clinical outcomes for dogs surgically treated for medial shoulder joint instability (MSI) by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament.

DESIGN Retrospective multicenter case series.

ANIMALS 39 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 veterinary medical centers were searched to identify dogs with MSI diagnosed by clinical examination and arthroscopic assessment and treated by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament. A minimum 6-month follow-up period was required for study inclusion. Signalment, function or use of the dog, duration of clinical signs, clinical and diagnostic imaging data, MSI grade (1 [mild] to 4 [complete luxation]), follow-up duration, complications, and outcome data were recorded.

RESULTS All grades of MSI were represented. Implants were placed successfully in all dogs. Complications (4 major and 2 minor) were recorded for 6 of 39 (15%) dogs; all were treated successfully. Function at the time of last follow-up (6 to 68 months) was deemed full in 30 of 39 (77%) dogs and acceptable in 9 (23%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical treatment of MSI in dogs by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament was associated with a complication rate considered acceptable for orthopedic procedures. All patient outcomes were considered successful.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trazodone following rectal administration of a single dose to healthy dogs.


6 healthy adult dogs.


Each dog received a single dose of trazodone (approx 8 mg/kg) per rectum. Trazodone tablets were crushed into a powder, mixed with 5 mL of tap water, and injected into the rectum via a red rubber catheter. Sedation scores were assigned, and blood samples were collected for determination of plasma trazodone concentration at predetermined times before and after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental analysis.


Plasma trazodone concentration remained below the detection limit for 1 dog even though it became moderately sedate. Median (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range [IQR]) maximum plasma trazodone concentration and volume of distribution and clearance corrected for bioavailability were 1.00 μg/mL (0.66 to 1.40 μg/mL), 10.3 L/kg (7.37 to 14.4 L/kg), and 639 mL/kg/h (594 to 719 mL/kg/h), respectively. Median time to maximum plasma trazodone concentration and elimination half-life were 15 minutes (range, 15 to 30 minutes) and 12 hours (IQR, 7.99 to 12.7 hours), respectively. All dogs became mildly or moderately sedate, and the extent of sedation was maximal at a median of 30 minutes (IQR, 30 to 60 minutes) after trazodone administration. No adverse effects were observed.


Rectal administration of trazodone may be a viable option for sedation and treatment of anxiety in dogs for which administration of sedatives and anxiolytics by other routes is contraindicated. Further research is necessary to better elucidate the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trazodone following rectal administration and determine optimal dosing.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research