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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine associations between antibody serologic tests and tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy (TBL) in dogs with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and identify variables associated with time to resolution of TBL.

ANIMALS

32 client owned dogs with newly diagnosed pulmonary coccidioidomycosis from October 2020 to February 2021.

METHODS

Prospective cohort study. Thoracic radiographs and anti–Coccidioides spp antibody serology were performed at baseline and once every 3 months until remission or for a maximum of 12 months. Radiographic tracheobronchial lymph node height, length, and area were measured and recorded as ratios via comparison with the length of the T4 vertebral body (LT4) and length of the manubrium. Severity of TBL was also subjectively categorized as mild, moderate, or severe.

RESULTS

Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was identified in 81% (26/32; 95% CI, 64% to 93%) of dogs. There was no relevant association between TBL presence or severity and antibody serology results. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy resolved in 72% (n = 18) of dogs at the 3-month evaluation. The median time to resolution of TBL after initiation of fluconazole was 96 days (range, 72 to 386 days). Univariate analysis identified increasing TBL severity (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.84; P = .02) and length:LT4 ratio (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.82; P = .01) as variables associated with reduced probability of resolution of TBL.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Antibody serologic test results are not clinically useful to predict TBL presence or severity in dogs with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, and larger tracheobronchial lymph nodes are more likely to take longer to resolve. Resolution of TBL occurs in most dogs within 3 to 6 months after fluconazole administration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate hearing loss in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), breed-specific brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) testing parameters are needed to help assess the Chiari-like malformation (CM) grade. The purpose of this study was to establish breed-specific BAER data and to determine if BAER indexes differed based on the CM grade. We hypothesized that there would be latency differences based on the CM grade.

ANIMALS

20 CKCS without apparent hearing abnormalities as assessed by the owners.

PROCEDURES

Under general anesthesia, CKCS underwent a CT scan (to assess the middle ear), BAER testing, and MRI (to assess the grade of CM).

RESULTS

No CKCS had CM0. Nine (45%) CKCS had CM1; 11 (55%) had CM2. All had at least 1 morphologic abnormality in waveforms. Absolute and interpeak latencies were reported for all CKCS and compared between CM grades. The median threshold for CKCS with CM1 was 39 and for CM2 was 46. Absolute latencies for CKCS with CM2 were consistently longer than those for CKCS with CM1 with the exception of waves II and V at 33 dB. Significant differences were found for wave V at 102 dB ( P = .04) and wave II at 74 dB (P = .008). Interpeak latency comparisons were inconsistent between CM1 and CM2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Breed-specific BAER data for CKCS with CM1 and CM2 were established. The results suggest that CM impacts BAER latency results, but the influence of the malformation is not always statistically significant or predictable.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the management of extensive hepatectomy in 2 dogs.

ANIMALS

A 10-year-old female intact mixed-breed dog (case 1) and an 11-year-old male castrated mixed-breed dog (case 2) were presented for surgical evaluation following diagnosis of a hepatic mass.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

16 months before presentation, case 1 had undergone a left lateral liver lobectomy, which resulted in an incomplete resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Both dogs underwent surgical excision of the liver mass.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In case 1, surgery consisted of the removal of the remaining left medial lobe, as well as the central division. Case 2 received a complete left and central division hepatectomy. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in both dogs. Liver enzyme resolution and lack of tumor recurrence were confirmed with chemistry panel and abdominal ultrasonography in both dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This case report describes, for the first time, the clinical management and outcome of extensive hepatectomy in 2 dogs. We propose that extensive hepatectomy, staged or synchronous, is possible in a clinical setting.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the CT features of cavitary pulmonary lesions and determine their utility to differentiate malignant from benign lesions.

ANIMALS

This retrospective study included cases from 5 veterinary medical centers between January 1 2010, and December 31, 2020. Inclusion criteria included having a gas-filled cavitary pulmonary lesion on thoracic CT and definitive diagnosis by either cytology or histopathology. Forty-two animals (27 dogs and 15 cats) were included in this study.

PROCEDURES

Medical records systems/imaging databases were searched, and cases meeting inclusion criteria were selected. The CT studies were interpreted by a third-year radiology resident, and findings were reviewed by a board-certified veterinary radiologist.

RESULTS

7 of the 13 lesion characteristics investigated were not statistically associated with the final diagnosis of the lesion, whereas 6 were statistically associated. Those that were associated included the presence of intralesional contrast enhancement, type of intralesional contrast enhancement (heterogenous and homogenous analyzed separately), presence of additional nodules, wall thickness of the lesion at its thickest point, and wall thickness at the thinnest point.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results from the present study showed that thoracic CT imaging of cavitary pulmonary lesions can be used to further refine the list of differential diagnoses. Based on this data set, in lesions that have heterogenous contrast enhancement, additional pulmonary nodules, and wall thickness > 40 mm at their thickest point, it would be reasonable to consider malignant neoplastic disease higher on the list of differentials than other causes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association