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Cardiorespiratory effects of an iv administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by iv infusion of ketamine (200 μg/kg/min) and midazolam (10 μg/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of iv administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration.

There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and breathing rate. Bolus administration of ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery. Time to extubation, sternal recumbency, and walking with minimal ataxia was similar for each treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—3 adult (24- to 43-year-old) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with chronic episodic malaise and inappetence associated with high serum aminotransferase (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities, high serum iron concentration, and serum transferrin saturation > 80% were evaluated.

Clinical Findings—Results of histologic examination of liver biopsy specimens revealed hemosiderosis in all 3 dolphins. Except for chronic lymphocytosis in 1 dolphin, results of extensive diagnostic testing revealed no other abnormalities. For each dolphin, a diagnosis of iron overload of unknown origin was made.

Treatment and Outcome—Phlebotomy treatment was implemented to reduce body stores of iron. Each phlebotomy procedure removed 7% to 17% (1 to 3 L) of estimated blood volume. Treatment consisted of an induction phase of weekly phlebotomy procedures for 22 to 30 weeks, which was complete when serum iron concentration and aminotransferase activities were within reference ranges and serum transferrin saturation was ≤ 20% or Hct was ≤ 30%. Total amount of iron removed from each dolphin was 53 to 111 mg/kg (24.1 to 50.5 mg/lb) of body weight. One dolphin required maintenance procedures at 8- to 12-week intervals when high serum iron concentration was detected.

Clinical Relevance—Although the cause of the iron overload and high serum aminotransferase activities remained unknown, phlebotomy treatment successfully resolved the clinicopathologic abnormalities, supporting a role of iron overload in the hepatopathy of the 3 dolphins.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Cardiopulmonary consequences of iv administered glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg of body weight), followed in 11 ± 2 minutes by butorphanol (0.2 mg/ kg) and xylazine (0.5 mg/kg), were evaluated in 6 dogs, with and without nasal administration of oxygen (100 ml/kg/min). Glycopyrrolate caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and cardiac index and significant (P < 0.05) decreases in stroke index.

Subsequent administration of butorphanol and xylazine was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in systemic vascular resistance, mean arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PaCO2 , venous admixture, oxygen extraction ratio, and hemoglobin concentration. It caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in cardiac index, stroke index, breathing rate, minute volume index, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption. Mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, tidal volume index, and minute volume index were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs were breathing room air. The arterial and venous PO2 and PCO2 , and venous oxygen content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, and the arterial and venous pH, and oxygen consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when oxygen was administered. Pulsus alternans and S-T segment depression were observed in dogs of both groups. Ventricular premature contractions were observed in 1 dog breathing room air.

All dogs were intubated briefly 15 minutes after administration of butorphanol and xylazine. Time to first spontaneous movement was 45 minutes. All dogs remained in lateral recumbency without physical restraint for 60 minutes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research