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History

A 5-year-old castrated male Beagle was referred for evaluation following 3 episodes of signs of neck pain occurring during a 6-week period. Prior to evaluation, the dog was treated with prednisone administration and exercise restriction, which were successful in alleviating the clinical signs after the first and second episode. However, at the time of the third episode, signs of neck pain persisted despite treatment. Consequently, the dog was referred.

No abnormalities were found on physical and neurologic examinations, with the exception of a lowered head carriage and severe signs of pain with manipulation of the neck in any direction.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 7-month-old neutered male Boxer was evaluated because of a 5-day history of signs of neck pain that were unresponsive to medical treatment with carprofen, methocarbamol, and tramadol. No abnormalities had been detected on radiography of the cervical portion of the vertebral column, thorax, and abdomen. The history did not include any known incidents of trauma. The dog had not traveled out of New Jersey and was current on vaccinations.

On the basis of a lack of response to treatment, the dog was referred; body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were within reference range. Except for signs of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 5-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier was referred for evaluation because of acute onset of left-sided epistaxis, hypersalivation, and neurologic signs following a 2-week history of nonproductive sneezing. On neurologic examination, the dog had a dull mentation and was circling to the left and falling to the right. Loss of facial sensation was evident. Pupil size and light responses were normal. The menace response was absent on the right. The dog had ventrolateral strabismus in the left eye and slow postural reaction responses on the right thoracic limb and right hind limb. On the basis of neurologic examination findings,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 13-year-old 6.5-kg (14.3-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of a peracute onset of tetraplegia. Within hours of being observed walking normally, the cat was found unable to stand. The cat had no prior medical problems. The cat was kept indoors, and its vaccination status was current.

Clinical and Gross Findings

Physical examination revealed no abnormalities with the exception of a grade 3/6 systolic heart murmur. There was no evidence of chronic kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. On neurologic examination, the cat was mentally normal but tetraplegic; overall examination findings were consistent with a lesion affecting the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 12-year-old 4.5-kg (9.9-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of seizures. Five months earlier, the cat had had 2 generalized seizures 3 days apart. After the second seizure, the primary veterinarian had initiated treatment with phenobarbital, which resulted in cessation of seizure episodes. The cat was also receiving benazepril because of proteinuria, which had been previously diagnosed. The cat (tested when a kitten) was negative for circulating FeLV antigen and positive for anti-FIV antibody. Three days prior to evaluation, the cat began having complex, focal seizures that included hypersalivation, twitching of the facial muscles, decreased

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether dogs have a meningovertebral ligament (MVL) and to assess the effect that structure may have on pathological lesions within the ventral epidural space.

SAMPLE

Cadaveric specimens from 6 neurologically normal dogs and 2 dogs with vertebral neoplasms that extended into the epidural space and MRI sequences and cytologic preparations from 2 dogs with compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion that underwent decompressive surgery.

PROCEDURES

The vertebral column was removed for gross and histologic examination from the cadavers of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with vertebral neoplasms. For dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion, MRI sequences to assess lesion location and topography and cytologic preparations of material surgically extirpated from the ventral epidural space were reviewed.

RESULTS

All dogs had an MVL, which formed the ventral boundary of the epidural space and consisted of fibrous bands that attached the external ventral surface of the dura mater of the spinal cord to the dorsal surface of the vertebral bodies throughout the length of the vertebral canal. Both vertebral neoplasms had a bilobed appearance as did the extruded nucleus pulposus lesions on MRI sequences.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study indicated that dogs have an MVL, which creates an anatomic barrier within the ventral epidural space and causes pathological lesions to adopt a bilobed shape regardless of the pathogenic process. Further anatomic studies of the MVL and vertebral canal of dogs are necessary to elucidate how those structures affect lesion progression within the ventral epidural space.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 7-year-old 34.1-kg (75-lb) castrated male pit bull–type dog was evaluated because of sudden-onset, rapidly progressive tetraparesis. Approximately 48 hours earlier, the owner noticed that the dog had left thoracic limb lameness. There was no change in the lameness until approximately 12 hours prior to evaluation when the dog suddenly became unable to stand or walk. The dog had been previously healthy. There was no coughing, sneezing, diarrhea, or increase in volume or frequency of urination. The dog had apparently normal appetite and thirst. The owner did not report any trauma. One year earlier, the dog had undergone surgical treatment

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old castrated male Maltese was evaluated for intermittent clinical signs of muscle cramping and abnormal movements of the skin of the right pelvic limb at the site where an infiltrative lipoma had twice been resected. After the second surgery, the surgical field was treated with radiation therapy (RT). The clinical signs developed approximately 14 months after completion of RT.

CLINICAL FINDINGS When clinical signs were present, the right biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles in the area that received RT were firm and had frequently visible contractions, and the skin overlying those muscles had episodic vermiform movements. Electromyography of those muscles revealed abnormal spontaneous activity with characteristics consistent with myokymic discharges and neuromyotonia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the affected leg revealed no evidence of tumor regrowth. The myokymia and neuromyotonia were considered secondary to RT.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 4 U of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) neurotoxin complex was injected into the affected muscles at each of 6 sites twice during a 24-hour period (ie, 48 U of BoNT-A were administered). The clinical signs were completely resolved 10 days after BoNT-A treatment and were controlled by repeated BoNT-A treatment every 3 to 4 months for > 1 year.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first report of myokymia and neuromyotonia secondary to RT in a dog. For the dog of this report, injection of BoNT-A into the affected muscles was safe, effective, and easy to perform.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds and determine whether affected dogs had coagulation abnormalities and hypertension.

Design—Multi-institutional, retrospective study.

Animals—21 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records (including diagnostic testing results) and MRI images of the brain were reviewed for Greyhounds with ischemic stroke that had been evaluated at 4 institutions. The proportion of Greyhounds with ischemic stroke was compared with the proportion of non-Greyhound dogs with ischemic stroke. Demographic information for dogs evaluated at each institution was obtained to determine the proportion of Greyhounds in the hospital populations.

Results—21 Greyhounds with ischemic stroke were identified. Abnormalities in coagulation were not identified in the 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. Systemic hypertension was identified in 6 of 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. No other abnormalities were identified by means of other routine diagnostic tests for Greyhounds. For all institutions combined, the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds was 0.66% (21/3,161 Greyhounds). Greyhounds were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of ischemic stroke, compared with all other dog breeds combined (OR, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.2 to 10.2).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that Greyhounds were predisposed to ischemic stroke, compared with all other breeds combined. Coagulation abnormalities did not seem to contribute to ischemic stroke. Hypertension may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. Greyhounds with ischemic stroke should undergo measurement of systolic arterial blood pressure. Antihypertensive treatments may be warranted for such dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association