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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the outcome of dogs with perineal hernia treated with transposition of the internal obturator muscle.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—34 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with perineal hernia surgically treated from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. Diagnostic methods and surgical techniques were recorded. Dogs were assigned preoperative and postoperative clinical sign scores. Complication and recurrence rates were evaluated over time. Risk factors were determined.

Results—Median follow-up time was 345 days (range, 22 to 1,423 days). Complications were observed in 10 dogs. Tenesmus (n = 9), dyschezia (7), fecal impaction (3), stranguria (4), hematochezia (2), urinary incontinence (2), diarrhea (1), urinary tract infection (1), and megacolon (1) occurred following surgery. Bladder retroflexion at the time of initial evaluation or surgery was not a risk factor for complication (hazard ratio, 1.72). One year after surgery, 51.2% dogs were free of complications. Three dogs developed a perineal hernia on the contralateral side between 35 and 95 days after surgery. The 1-year recurrence rate was 27.4%. Median time for recurrence was 28 days after surgery (range, 2 to 364 days). Postoperative tenesmus was a risk factor for the development of recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.29).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Internal obturator muscle transposition was used for primary repair of perineal hernia in dogs. Recurrence was recorded as long as 1 year after surgery. Tenesmus was a risk factor for the development of recurrence after treatment of perineal hernia with internal obturator muscle transposition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of protein concentration on rate of closure of ameroid constrictors in vitro.

Sample Population—Twenty-four 3.5-mm ameroid constrictors.

Procedure—Ameroid constrictors were equally allocated into 4 treatment groups; constrictors were placed in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control) or plasma diluted with saline solution to obtain protein concentrations of 1.5, 3, or 6 g/dL. Ameroid constrictors were incubated for 27 days. A digital camera was used to image ameroid constrictors in culture at 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, and 27 days, and the lumen diameter of each constrictor was measured.

Results—None of the rings were completely closed at 27 days. Mean final lumen diameter was 0.205 ± 0.22 mm. Mean final lumen diameter of constrictors in the control group was significantly larger than that of constrictors in the 1.5, 3, and 6 g/dL groups. Constrictors in the 1.5 g/dL group closed to a larger diameter than that of constrictors in the 6 g/dL group. Constrictors in the control group had the smallest overall change in lumen diameter, compared with constrictors in the 3 and 6 g/dL groups. Constrictors in the 1.5 g/dL group had a significant decrease in overall lumen diameter, compared with constrictors in the 3 and 6 g/dL groups. The diameter of the ameroid lumen was a function of time and protein concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High plasma protein concentrations resulted in rapid closure of the ameroid constrictor lumen. Complete closure of ameroid constrictors may not be attributable to imbibition of casein. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1337–1340)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare outcomes of dogs with pyothorax treated medically versus surgically and to identify prognostic indicators for dogs with pyothorax.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—26 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, results of physical and laboratory evaluations at the time of initial examination, results of bacterial culture of pleural fluid, radiographic abnormalities, treatment (surgical vs medical), complications, whether the disease recurred, disease-free interval, survival time, and cause of death.

Results—Calculated proportions of dogs free from disease 1 year after treatment were 25 and 78%, respectively, for dogs treated medically and surgically. Treatment was 5.4 times as likely to fail in dogs treated medically as in dogs treated surgically. Two regression models relating treatment group (medical vs surgical) to disease-free interval were found to be significant. The first contained terms for medical treatment and isolation of Actinomyces spp from pleural fluid; the second contained terms for medical treatment and radiographic detection of mediastinal or pulmonary lesions at the time of initial examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that surgical treatment is associated with a better outcome than medical treatment in dogs with pyothorax. In addition, surgery should be considered if radiographic evidence of mediastinal or pulmonary lesions is detected or if Actinomyces spp is isolated from the pleural fluid. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:86–92)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine long-term outcome of dogs treated surgically for idiopathic chylothorax.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 client-owned dogs with idiopathic chylothorax that underwent surgery between November 1995 and April 2009 and had been followed up for at least 4 months after surgery.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic findings, surgical procedures, postoperative complications, outcome, and cause of death.

Results—A median sternotomy was performed in 10 dogs, and a right intercostal thoracotomy (fifth and ninth intercostal spaces) was performed in 1. Thoracic duct ligation and subtotal pericardectomy were performed in all dogs. Thoracic omentalization was performed in 8 dogs at the time of surgery, passive pleuroperitoneal shunting was performed in 2 dogs, and pleurodesis was performed in 1 dog. Lung lobectomy was performed because of lung consolidation in 2 dogs and lung lobe torsion in another 2 dogs at the time of the initial surgery. Median disease-free interval did not differ significantly between dogs that did and did not undergo lung lobectomy. Postoperative complications occurred in 5 dogs. Median follow-up time was 46 months. Eight of 11 dogs were free from clinical signs 5 years after surgery. Two of the 3 dogs that did not undergo thoracic omentalization had a recurrence of clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the prognosis for dogs surgically treated for idiopathic chylothorax was fair and that lung lobectomy was not a negative prognostic indicator.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures for a novel suture material with pressures for comparable suture material when used in closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers.

Sample—Healthy intestines from cadavers of dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—18 anastomoses were performed on intestinal sections within 72 hours after dogs were euthanized and intestinal samples collected. Anastomoses were performed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured and recorded for 6 control segments and 18 anastomosed sections. A barbed glycomer 631 suture (size 4–0 United States Pharmacopeia [USP]) was compared with glycomer 631 sutures (sizes 3–0 and 4–0 USP). Results for leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were compared via an ANOVA.

Results—The barbed glycomer 631 suture material leaked at a significantly higher pressure than did the comparable glycomer 631 suture materials. Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different among the suture materials.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Barbed glycomer 631 4–0 USP suture material was as effective as glycomer 631 suture materials and may be a safe alternative for use in closure of enterectomies in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anatomic landmarks to define the ideal suture placement location to achieve appropriate and consistent arytenoid cartilage abduction via unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization (UCL) in dogs.

Sample—6 cadaveric canine larynges.

Procedures—Laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after suture placements with the epiglottis open and closed. To achieve UCL, suture was placed through the cricoid cartilage just caudal to the cricoarytenoid articulation (suture placement position [SPP] 1), one-fourth of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 2), and three-fourths of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 3). The LAR was again calculated after tensioning of each suture separately.

Results—With a closed epiglottis, median LAR was 30.0, 20.4, 11.4, and 3.3 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPP 1, LAR with the epiglottis closed was not significantly different from that at baseline. With an open epiglottis, median LAR was 2.0, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.0 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPPs 1, 2, or 3, LAR with an open epiglottis was significantly lower than that at baseline.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that placement of suture through the cricoid cartilage at the caudal border of the cricoarytenoid articulation was appropriate to sufficiently reduce LAR without increasing the risk of aspiration pneumonia through overabduction of the arytenoid cartilage.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the bursting strength of a vessel sealant device (VSD) with that of an encircling suture on uterine horns and bodies from dogs.

Sample—Uteri from 24 shelter dogs with unknown reproductive histories.

Procedures—Uterine horns and bodies were allocated to groups to be sealed with suture or a VSD. Uteri were then infused with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution until the seals burst or the uteri reached a maximal pressure of 300 mm Hg. Variables recorded included dog age, uterine body and horn diameter, and maximal pressure.

Results—The median (range) bursting pressure reached in sealed uterine horns was 300 (0 to 300) mm Hg for the VSD group and 300 (200 to 300) mm Hg for the suture group. Within the VSD group, seals of 2 of 3 uterine horns with a diameter ≥ 9 mm burst before intraluminal pressure reached 100 mm Hg, compared with 1 of 21 uterine horns with a diameter < 9 mm. The median bursting pressure for uterine bodies was 237 (0 to 300) mm Hg for the VSD group versus 300 (175 to 300) mm Hg for the suture group. Within the VSD group, seals in uterine bodies with a diameter ≥ 9 mm failed at a significantly lower pressure (125 [0 to 125]) mm Hg than those with a diameter < 9 mm (275 [125 to 300]) mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The failure pressure for both sealing techniques was high, which indicated that the VSD may be a safe instrument for sealing the uterine horn in dogs. Given the low mean bursting pressure for seals in uterine bodies with large diameters, the VSD cannot be recommended for sealing uterine bodies ≥ 9 mm in diameter.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate fluid pressures generated via common wound-flushing techniques.

Sample Population—24 combinations of bottles, needles, a syringe, and a bag.

Procedures—12 medically trained individuals used the following devices to forcefully expel fluid as for wound flushing: full and half-full 1-L and 500-mL bottles with holes in the cap made with 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-gauge needles; a 35-mL syringe with the same needle sizes; and a 1-L bag placed in a cuff pressurized to 300 mm Hg, with the same needle sizes. Fluid expulsion pressures were measured and compared.

Results—The highest pressure generated with the bottle was 3.90 — 1.30 psi (mean — SD) with a 16-gauge needle and a full 1-L bottle. The highest pressure generated with the 35-mL syringe was 18.40 — 9.80 psi with a 16-gauge needle. The lowest pressure generated with the 35-mL syringe was 16.70 — 6.50 psi with an 18-gauge needle. The bag under pressure generated a pressure of 7.3 — 0.1 psi with a 16-gauge needle. Needle size did not have a significant effect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Solution bottles of any size and needle gauge do not meet the requirement for satisfactory flushing pressure of 7 to 8 psi. Use of a 35-mL syringe can produce pressure substantially > 7 to 8 psi, which could damage tissues. The most consistent delivery method to generate 7 to 8 psi was use of a 1-L plastic bag within a cuff pressurized to 300 mm Hg.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effect of 3 loading doses of warfarin sodium on the international normalized ratio (INR) for dogs.

Animals—18 dogs weighing between 25 and 30 kg.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated into 3 groups and received 2, 4, or 6 mg of warfarin administered orally once a day for 2 days after surgery for bilateral iliac artery grafting. Activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) and prothrombin times (PT) were measured before and after treatment. Prothrombin time also was reported as an international normalized ratio.

Results—The APTT were not significantly different among groups before or after treatment. The INR and PT were significantly increased in all groups after treatment. The INR and PT of the 6-mg group were significantly greater than those of the 2-mg and 4-mg groups. None of the dogs had clinical evidence of bleeding.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A warfarin loading dose of 6 mg/d can be safely administered for 2 days to dogs weighing between 25 and 30 kg. Anticoagulation can be achieved safely in dogs in 2 days by use of warfarin. The effects of warfarin can be monitored with the INR. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:48–50)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures of intestinal anastomoses with and without serosal patch supplementation in dogs.

Sample—Healthy small intestine segments from cadavers of 2 dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—12 enterectomy constructs were created by anastomosis of intestinal segments with a standard simple continuous suture pattern. Half of the constructs were randomly selected for additional serosal patch support. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured in and compared between patch-supplemented and nonsupplemented constructs.

Results—Mean ± SD leakage pressure was significantly greater for the patch-supplemented anastomoses (81.8 ± 6.7 mm Hg) than for the nonsupplemented anastomoses (28.0 ± 6.7 mm Hg). Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different between the groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serosal patch–supplemented anastomoses were able to sustain a significantly higher pressure before leakage than were nonsupplemented anastomoses in intestinal specimens from canine cadavers. The serosal patch supplementation may protect against leakage immediately after enterectomy in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research