Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures of intestinal anastomoses with and without serosal patch supplementation in dogs.
Sample—Healthy small intestine segments from cadavers of 2 dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.
Procedures—12 enterectomy constructs were created by anastomosis of intestinal segments with a standard simple continuous suture pattern. Half of the constructs were randomly selected for additional serosal patch support. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured in and compared between patch-supplemented and nonsupplemented constructs.
Results—Mean ± SD leakage pressure was significantly greater for the patch-supplemented anastomoses (81.8 ± 6.7 mm Hg) than for the nonsupplemented anastomoses (28.0 ± 6.7 mm Hg). Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different between the groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serosal patch–supplemented anastomoses were able to sustain a significantly higher pressure before leakage than were nonsupplemented anastomoses in intestinal specimens from canine cadavers. The serosal patch supplementation may protect against leakage immediately after enterectomy in dogs.
Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures for a novel suture material with pressures for comparable suture material when used in closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers.
Sample—Healthy intestines from cadavers of dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.
Procedures—18 anastomoses were performed on intestinal sections within 72 hours after dogs were euthanized and intestinal samples collected. Anastomoses were performed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured and recorded for 6 control segments and 18 anastomosed sections. A barbed glycomer 631 suture (size 4–0 United States Pharmacopeia [USP]) was compared with glycomer 631 sutures (sizes 3–0 and 4–0 USP). Results for leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were compared via an ANOVA.
Results—The barbed glycomer 631 suture material leaked at a significantly higher pressure than did the comparable glycomer 631 suture materials. Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different among the suture materials.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Barbed glycomer 631 4–0 USP suture material was as effective as glycomer 631 suture materials and may be a safe alternative for use in closure of enterectomies in dogs.
Objective—To determine the effects of infiltration of the incision site with bupivacaine hydrochloride as part of a multimodal analgesia protocol (incisional block) on postoperative analgesia and incisional healing.
Procedures—As part of a multimodal analgesic protocol for ovariohysterectomy, dogs received 1 of the following treatments at the incision site: no injection (26 dogs), preincisional infiltration with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (12 dogs) or bupivacaine (21 dogs), or postincisional infiltration with bupivacaine (33 dogs). Postoperative pain was assessed with the Glasgow pain scale and response to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments. Incisions were monitored for signs of inflammation (edema, erythema, and discharge) and complications in wound healing.
Results—There was no difference in pain scores or response to mechanical stimulation over time among treatments. There were no significant differences in incisional edema or discharge among treatments. There was significantly more erythema in dogs that received preincisional infiltration with saline solution at 4 hours after surgery and less erythema in dogs that received postincisional infiltration with bupivacaine at 24 hours after surgery, compared with other treatments. The number of complications for dogs that had preincisional infiltration of bupivacaine was higher than for dogs that had other treatments; complications included excessive inflammation, splenic laceration, and herniation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No additional analgesic benefit was found in dogs that underwent local bupivacaine infiltration as part of a multimodal analgesic protocol for ovariohysterectomy.
Objective—To evaluate the disease-free interval (DFI) and median survival time (MST) in dogs with idiopathic and neoplastic pericardial effusion surgically treated by a thoracoscopic pericardial window procedure or subtotal pericardectomy via thoracotomy and to compare DFI and MST in dogs with and without a mass on preoperative echocardiography that underwent either surgical technique.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—58 dogs with pericardial effusion.
Procedures—Medical records between 1985 and 2010 were evaluated. Dogs were included in the study if they had confirmed pericardial effusion and underwent a thoracoscopic pericardial window procedure or subtotal pericardectomy via thoracotomy.
Results—Clinical signs of dogs at initial evaluation were similar, with the exception of lethargy, between dogs treated by subtotal pericardectomy via thoracotomy or the pericardial window procedure. Dogs with idiopathic pericardial effusion that underwent the thoracoscopic pericardial window procedure had significantly shorter DFI and MST than did those treated by subtotal pericardectomy via thoracotomy. For neoplastic pericardial effusion, DFI and MST were not significantly different between dogs treated with either surgical technique.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with idiopathic pericardial effusion treated with a subtotal pericardectomy via thoracotomy had a significantly longer DFI and MST, compared with dogs treated by the thoracoscopic pericardial window procedure. This difference in outcome may be related to inaccuracy of the initial diagnosis or ineffectiveness of the pericardial window to palliate the signs of idiopathic pericardial effusion long term.
Objective—To determine whether number of instrument cannulas is associated with surgical time or severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy.
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Animals—18 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic ovariectomy with 1, 2, or 3 instrument cannulas. Surgical time and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Severity of pain was monitored 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after surgery by means of pain scoring with a modified Melbourne Pain Scale and palpation of surgical sites with variably sized von Frey filaments. Owner-assessed postoperative comfort was also evaluated.
Results—Surgical time was significantly longer with 1 cannula (mean ± SD, 29.7 ± 5.6 minutes) than with 2 cannulas (18.2 ± 4.4 minutes) or 3 cannulas (19.3 ± 3.4 minutes). Intraoperative complications included splenic puncture (2 dogs), pedicle hemorrhage (1 dog), and SC emphysema (1 dog); complication rates were not significantly different among groups. Total pain score was significantly lower for dogs with 2 cannulas than for dogs with 3 cannulas; total pain score for dogs with 1 cannula did not differ significantly from scores for dogs with 2 cannulas or 3 cannulas. Owner assessments of postoperative comfort and number of days pain medications were administered did not differ among groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that laparoscopic ovariectomy with 2 instrument cannulas, rather than with 1, resulted in shorter surgical times without increasing severity of postoperative pain.
To determine whether premature death occurred among dogs with nonmalignant splenic histopathologic findings after splenectomy for nontraumatic hemoabdomen.
197 dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen that underwent splenectomy and histopathologic evaluation between 2005 and 2018.
Information was obtained from electronic medical records, dog owners, and referring veterinarians to determine patient characteristics, histopathologic findings, survival information, and cause of death. Dogs were grouped based on histopathological diagnosis and outcome, and median survival times (MSTs) and risk factors for death were determined.
Histopathologic findings indicated malignancy in 144 of the 197 (73.1%) dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen. Hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 126 dogs (87.5% of those with malignancies and 64.0% of all dogs). Nine of 53 (17%) dogs with nonmalignant histopathologic findings had an adverse outcome and premature death, with an MST of 49 days. Risk factors for this outcome included low plasma total solids concentration, an elevated hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score, and a medium or high hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score category.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This study showed that there is a group of dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen due to splenic disease that have nonmalignant histopathologic findings after splenectomy, but nonetheless suffer an adverse outcome and die prematurely of a suspected malignancy. Further evaluation of potential at-risk populations may yield detection of otherwise overlooked malignancies.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a percutaneous, continuous gastric decompression technique for dogs involving a temporary T-fastener gastropexy and self-retaining decompression catheter.
ANIMALS 6 healthy male large-breed dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency with slight left-lateral obliquity. The gastric lumen was insufflated endoscopically until tympany was evident. Three T-fasteners were placed percutaneously into the gastric lumen via the right lateral aspect of the abdomen, caudal to the 13th rib and lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle. Through the center of the T-fasteners, a 5F locking pigtail catheter was inserted into the gastric lumen and attached to a device measuring gas outflow and intragastric pressure. The stomach was insufflated to 23 mm Hg, air was allowed to passively drain from the catheter until intraluminal pressure reached 5 mm Hg for 3 cycles, and the catheter was removed. Dogs were hospitalized and monitored for 72 hours.
RESULTS Mean ± SD catheter placement time was 3.3 ± 0.5 minutes. Mean intervals from catheter placement to a ≥ 50% decrease in intragastric pressure and to ≤ 6 mm Hg were 2.1 ± 1.3 minutes and 8.4 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively. After catheter removal, no gas or fluid leakage at the catheter site was visible laparoscopically or endoscopically. All dogs were clinically normal 72 hours after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The described technique was performed rapidly and provided continuous gastric decompression with no evidence of postoperative leakage in healthy dogs. Investigation is warranted to evaluate its effectiveness in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.
OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes in dogs undergoing extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and establish preliminary guidelines for case selection when considering VATS for thymectomy in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs that underwent extirpation of a cranial mediastinal mass by means of VATS at 5 academic referral hospitals from 2009 through 2014.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging results, surgical approach and duration, cytologic and histologic examination results, complications, outcome, and cause of death, when applicable.
RESULTS 16 dogs had a thymoma, 1 had thymic anaplastic carcinoma, and 1 had hemangiosarcoma. Seven had both megaesophagus and myasthenia gravis. Median approximate tumor volume was 113.1 cm3 (interquartile range, 33.5 to 313.3 cm3). Median duration of VATS was 117.5 minutes (interquartile range, 91.5 to 136.3 minutes). Conversion to an open thoracic surgical procedure was required for 2 dogs, 1 of which died during surgery. Median survival time following VATS for dogs with thymoma and concurrent myasthenia gravis and megaesophagus was 20 days. Dogs with thymoma without paraneoplastic syndrome survived for ≥ 60 days, and none of these dogs died of disease-related causes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE VATS appeared to be an acceptable approach for extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum in dogs under certain conditions. Dogs with myasthenia gravis and megaesophagus had a poor postoperative outcome.