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  • Author or Editor: Eric J. Herrgesell x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic abnormalities in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information and results of clinicopathologic testing were obtained from medical records. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed to characterize abnormalities.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1 to 10 years old at the time of diagnosis, with 12 dogs being between 1 and 3 years old. Historical complaints included cough, lameness, signs of head or neck pain, and difficulty breathing. Mild anemia, neutrophilia, and monocytosis were common. All dogs had hypoalbuminemia, and 8 of 15 had hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs of 19 dogs were reviewed. Pulmonary infiltrates were seen in 13 dogs, with an interstitial pattern of infiltration being most common. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen radiographically in 10 dogs. Serum from 20 dogs was tested for antibodies against Coccidioides immitis. One dog was positive for IgM antibodies, 5 were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies, and 14 were positive for IgG antibodies. Quantitative IgG titers measured in 14 dogs ranged from 1:2 to 1:128 (median and mode, 1:32). In 6 dogs, histologic examination of biopsy samples revealed fungal spherules ranging from 8 to 70 μm in diameter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, coccidioidomycosis may be associated with a wide spectrum of nonspecific respiratory and musculoskeletal abnormalities. The chronic nature of the disease makes diagnosis difficult, even in regions in which the organism is endemic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:461–466)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs and rhinoscopic, computed tomographic, and histologic abnormalities in dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Nasal computed tomographic images and histologic slides of biopsy specimens were reviewed.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 14 years old (mean, 8 years); most (28) were large-breed dogs. Nasal discharge was unilateral in 11 of 26 (42%) dogs and bilateral in 15 of 26 (58%) dogs. In dogs with unilateral disease, duration of clinical signs ranged from 1.5 to 36 months (mean, 8.25 months; median, 2 months), and in dogs with bilateral disease, duration of signs ranged from 1.25 to 30 months (mean, 6.5 months; median, 4 months). Computed tomography (n = 33) most often revealed fluid accumulation (27/33 [82%]), turbinate destruction (23/33 [70%]), and frontal sinus opacification (14/33 [42%]). Rhinoscopy (n = 37) commonly demonstrated increased mucus and epithelial inflammation; turbinate destruction was detected in 8 of 37 (22%) dogs. Bilateral biopsy specimens from all 37 dogs were examined. Four dogs had only unilateral inflammatory changes. The remaining 33 dogs had bilateral lesions; in 20, lesions were more severe on 1 side than the other.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is a key contributor to chronic nasal disease in dogs and may be more common than previously believed. In addition, findings suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is most often a bilateral disease, even among dogs with unilateral nasal discharge. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:1952–1957)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of radiography, ultrasonography, and antegrade pyelography for detection of ureteral obstructions in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats that had radiography, ultrasonography, and antegrade pyelography performed for suspected ureteral obstructions were examined. Ultrasound-guided pyelocentesis and fluoroscopic- assisted antegrade pyelography were performed on 18 kidneys in 11 cats. Obstructive ureteral lesions were confirmed in all cats by surgical or necropsy examination. Sensitivity and specificity of survey radiography, ultrasonography, and antegrade pyelography for identification of ureteral obstructions were calculated. Surgical or necropsy findings were used as the standard for comparison.

Results—All cats were azotemic. Mean ± SD serum creatinine and BUN concentrations were 10.2 ± 6.1 and 149 ± 82 mg/dL, respectively. Fifteen of 18 ureters were found to be obstructed at surgery or necropsy. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 100% for radiography and 100 and 33% for ultrasonography, respectively, in identification of ureteral obstructions. Leakage of contrast material developed in 8 of 18 kidneys during antegrade pyelography and prevented diagnostic interpretation in 5 of 18 studies. For the 13 diagnostic studies, specificity and sensitivity were 100% by use of the antegrade pyelography technique. Correct identification of the anatomic location of the ureteral obstruction was obtained in 100% of diagnostic antegrade pyelography studies and in 60% of radiography or ultrasonography studies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Antegrade pyelography can be a useful alternative in the diagnosis and localization of ureteral obstructions in azotemic cats, although leakage of contrast material may prevent interpretation of the study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1576–1581)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association