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Summary

An outbreak of cysticercosis in a south-central Idaho custom feedlot reached a peak prevalence of 11% in January 1993 and extended from October 1992 through March 1993. Of 5,164 cattle slaughtered from this feedlot during the outbreak, 457 (9%) were cysticercosis infected. Total discounts on the infected cattle at slaughter cost the feedlot $154,400.

Most evidence was suggestive of feed-borne transmission of Taenia saginata eggs to the cattle in the feedlot. By use of logistic regression analysis of feedlot records, significant (P = 0.004) association of cysticercosis prevalence at slaughter with days on feed was revealed. Similarly, a decline in cysticercosis prevalence was significantly (P < 0.001) related to the number of days cattle were fed a ration not containing potato byproduct. Although sources other than potato byproduct were systematically evaluated during the investigation, findings suggested that potato byproduct fed in this feedlot was contaminated with T saginata eggs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate commingled grazing on public lands as a risk factor for Tritrichomonas foetus infection in beef herd bulls.

Design

Case-control study.

Sample Population

Based on 1994 data from the mandatory ldaho bull testing program, all 65 infected herds (case herds), 78 randomly selected test-negative herds that tested < 10 nonvirgin bulls, and 81 randomly selected test-negative herds that tested > 10 nonvirgin bulls (control herds).

Procedure

Managers of government-owned grazing lands in Idaho identified producers who had grazing permits for an allotment under their jurisdiction in 1993 and for that allotment recorded the number of animals the producer was permitted to graze on the allotment, the number of herds with grazing permits, the total number of animals permitted, and the dates on which grazing began and ended. The number of bulls tested, number of times tested, and test results were collated from the testing database.

Results

The relative sensitivity of bacterial culture of preputial smegma was 81%. The attributable fraction of T foetus infection associated with commingled grazing was 33%, and the odds ratio of infection was 9.0 for herds commingled with ≥ 14 other herds. The total number of animals permitted on an allotment, the use of public lands, and type of public lands used were not significantly associated with infection status.

Clinical Implications

These results suggest that to control the spread of trichomonosis, the number of herds commingling on a grazing allotment should be minimized and commingled herds should be managed collectively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:643-646)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of CSF testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona.

Sample Population—Test results of 428 serum and 355 CSF samples from 182 naturally exposed, experimentally infected, or vaccinated horses.

Procedure—EPM was diagnosed on the basis of histologic examination of the CNS. Probability distributions were fitted to serum IFAT results in the EPM+ and EPM-horses, and correlation between serum and CSF results was modeled. Pairs of serum-CSF titers were generated by simulation, and titer-specific likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities of EPM at various pretest probability values were estimated. Post-test probabilities were compared for use of a serum-CSF test combination, a serum test only, and a CSF test only.

Results—Post-test probabilities of EPM increased as IFAT serum and CSF titers increased. Post-test probability differences for use of a serum-CSF combination and a serum test only were ≤ 19% in 95% of simulations. The largest increases occurred when serum titers were from 40 to 160 and pre-test probabilities were from 5% to 60%. In all simulations, the difference between pre- and post-test probabilities was greater for a CSF test only, compared with a serum test only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CSF testing after a serum test has limited usefulness in the diagnosis of EPM. A CSF test alone might be used when CSF is required for other procedures. Ruling out other causes of neurologic disease reduces the necessity of additional EPM testing.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research