Objective—To measure and compare synovial fluid
antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen in stifle joints
with instability caused by complete or partial cranial
cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and joints with
osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes
Animals—82 dogs with diseased stifle joints.
Procedure—Synovial fluid samples were collected
from 7 dogs with clinically normal stifles (control
group) and 82 dogs with diseased joints (50 stifle
joints with complete rupture of the CCL, 20 with partial
damage of the CCL, and 12 joints with radiographic
signs of osteoarthritis secondary to other
arthropathies). Synovial fluid samples were tested for
autoantibodies to type-I and -II collagen by an ELISA.
Results—In dogs with complete and partial CCL rupture,
synovial fluid antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen
were significantly increased, compared with
control dogs. Forty-eight percent (24/50) of samples
from dogs with complete CCL rupture and 35% (7/20)
of samples from dogs with partial CCL rupture had
antibody titers to type-I collagen that were greater
than the mean plus 2 standard deviations of the control
group titers. Synovial fluid antibody titers to type-
II collagen were high in 40% of the dogs with partial
or (8/20) complete (20/50) CCL rupture. Dogs with
osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes
had significantly increased synovial fluid antibodies to
type-I and -II collagen, compared with control dogs.
Conclusion—Increases in autoantibodies to collagen
in synovial fluid are not specific for the type of joint
disorder. It is unlikely that the anticollagen antibodies
play an active role in the initiation of weakening of the
CCL. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1456–1461)
Objective—To examine mRNA expression of cytokines in synovial fluid (SF) cells from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and medial patellar luxation (MPL) and determine mRNA expression for 3 joints (affected stifle, unaffected contralateral stifle, and left shoulder joints) in dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture.
Sample Population—29 stifle joints with CrCL rupture (29 dogs), 8 stifle joints with MPL (7 dogs), and 24 normal stifle joints (16 clinically normal dogs).
Procedures—Immediately before reconstructive surgery, SF was aspirated from the cruciate-deficient stifle joint or stifle joint with MPL. Fourteen of 29 dogs had unilateral CrCL rupture; SF was also aspirated from the unaffected contralateral stifle joint and left shoulder joint. Those 14 dogs were examined 6 and 12 months after reconstructive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from SF cells and reverse transcription–PCR assay was performed to obtain cDNA. Canine-specific cytokine mRNA expression was determined by use of a real-time PCR assay.
Results—Interleukin (IL)-8 and -10 and interferon-G expression differed significantly between dogs with arthropathies and dogs with normal stifle joints. For the 14 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture, a significant difference was found for IL-8 expression. Before reconstructive surgery, IL-8 expression differed significantly between the affected stifle joint and left shoulder joint or contralateral stifle joint. Six months after surgery, IL-8 expression was significantly increased in the unaffected contralateral stifle joint, compared with the shoulder joint.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No conclusions can be made regarding the role of the examined cytokines in initiation of CrCL disease.
Objective—To evaluate anticollagen type I antibodies in synovial fluid of the affected stifle joint, the contralateral stifle joint, and the left shoulder joint of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture during an extended period of 12 to 18 months.
Animals—13 client-owned dogs with CrCL rupture and 2 sham-operated dogs.
Procedures—All dogs were examined and arthrocentesis of all 3 joints was performed every 6 months after surgery. Synovial fluid samples were tested for anticollagen type I antibodies by use of an ELISA.
Results—Dogs with partial CrCL rupture had higher antibody titers than dogs with complete rupture. Six of 13 dogs ruptured the contralateral CrCL during the study, whereby higher antibody titers were found for the stifle joints than for the shoulder joint. Seronegative dogs or dogs with extremely low antibody titers and 2 dogs with high antibody titers did not sustain a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In most dogs that had a CrCL rupture of the contralateral stifle joint, a distinct antibody titer gradient toward the stifle joints was detected, suggesting that there was a local inflammatory process in these joints. However, only a small number of sham-operated dogs were used to calculate the cutoff values used to determine the anticollagen type I antibody titers in these patients. Synovial fluid antibodies against collagen type I alone do not initiate CrCL rupture because not all dogs with high antibody titers sustained a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.
Objective—To test a modified saline (0.9% NaCl)
solution joint washing (lavage) technique that includes
the use of vitamin B12 as an internal marker for the
evaluation of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples
from canine joints.
Sample Population—9 plasma samples obtained
from blood samples of 9 healthy dogs and 9 synovial
fluid samples aspirated from stifle joints of 9 cadaveric
Procedure—Photometric absorbances of 25% vitamin
B12 solution, canine synovial fluid, and canine
plasma were measured in a spectrophotometer to
establish an optimal wavelength for analysis. Canine
synovial fluid and plasma samples were mixed with
the 25% vitamin B12 solution to obtain 1%, 3%, 5%,
10%, 20%, and 50% solutions of synovial fluid or
plasma. Diluted synovial fluid and plasma samples
were used to simulate joint lavage samples and to
examine the possible interference of these substances
(synovial fluid or plasma) with the
absorbance of the 25% vitamin B12 solution in photometric
Results—The optimal wavelength was found to be at
550 nm. Canine synovial fluid and plasma samples did
not interfere with the absorbance measurements of
the 25% vitamin B12 solution up to a 50% dilution of
plasma or synovial fluid.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified
saline solution joint lavage method with the use of a
25% vitamin B12 solution as an internal standard provides
an accurate and reliable technique for the evaluation
of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples from
canine joints. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1903–1906)