A 6-year-old 2-kg (4.4-lb) sexually intact female Yorkshire Terrier was referred to the Dallas Veterinary Surgical Center because of pelvic limb paresis. The owners first noticed a sudden decrease in activity 2 days earlier; clinical signs progressed until the dog was unable to rise the morning of evaluation. Three years prior, the dog had been treated because of sudden onset of pelvic limb paralysis; at that time, a CT examination revealed intervertebral disk herniation with pronounced spinal cord compression at the L2–3 and L3–4 intervertebral spaces. A right-sided hemilaminectomy spanning the L1 through L4 vertebrae was performed, and a moderate
A 4-year-old 12.8-kg (28.2-lb) castrated male Miniature Schnauzer was evaluated because of sudden-onset paraplegia. The owners first noticed a decline in the dog's activity level approximately 1 week prior. At that time, the dog was examined by the primary veterinarian, who reported no ataxia or neurologic deficits. Clinicopathologic and abdominal radiographic findings were interpreted as unremarkable. The dog was treated with an SC injection of maropitant citrate (13 mg) once, tramadol hydrochloride (50 mg, PO, q 12 h for 1 week), and carprofen (25 mg, PO, q 12 h for 1 week). Despite these treatments, the dog progressed from being
To determine the proportion of abnormal results for a point-of-care pancreas-specific lipase assay screening test in dogs lacking clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis with and without gastrointestinal foreign body obstruction (GIFBO).
50 client-owned dogs with acute abdomen syndrome between April 2019 and January 2021.
In this prospective observational cohort study, dogs were enrolled into a control non-GIFBO group (n = 25) or GIFBO group (25) on the basis of clinical diagnostics performed at presentation. Dogs with evidence of pancreatitis were excluded. Data collected included signalment, body weight, clinical signs, hematologic test results, abdominal imaging findings, and intraoperative findings. SNAP canine pancreatic lipase (cPL) tests were performed for all dogs within 24 hours of presentation and prior to any surgical procedure. Results were analyzed across all dogs for any clinical associations.
The proportions of abnormal SNAP cPL test results in the GIFBO and non-GIFBO groups were 12% (3/25) and 16% (4/25), respectively, with no significant difference. The only differences between groups were that GIFBO canines were more likely to be male (P = 0.02) and had a slightly longer duration of clinical signs at presentation (P = 0.01). Abnormal SNAP cPL test results were associated with increasing age (P = 0.01).
SNAP cPL test results are mostly reliable but can still be abnormal in a small percentage of dogs with GIFBO. Abnormal results in dogs without pancreatitis occurred more frequently in older dogs of the present study. Abdominal imaging is advised for dogs with abnormal SNAP cPL test results.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old 5.2-kg (11.4-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was referred because of a 6-week history of progressive paraparesis.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic examination revealed moderate ambulatory paraparesis with marked spinal hyperesthesia at the thoracolumbar junction. The lesion was localized to the T3-L3 spinal cord segment. Clinicopathologic testing, thoracic radiography, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed no abnormalities to explain the observed clinical signs. Advanced spinal imaging with MRI revealed an extradural right-lateralized mass originating from the L2 vertebral pedicle and causing severe spinal cord compression.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Surgical decompression was achieved by performance of a right-sided hemilaminectomy at L2. Histologic examination of biopsy samples obtained from the mass revealed an ill-defined zone of mature vascular proliferation extending through the preexisting vertebral bone, consistent with vertebral angiomatosis. After surgical recovery, adjuvant radiation therapy was initiated with a total dose of 48 Gy administered in 16 fractions of 3 Gy each over a 3-week period. Neurologic function rapidly improved to full ambulation with only minimal monoparesis of the right pelvic limb. Results of neurologic and MRI examination performed 26 months after surgery indicated no change in neurologic status or evidence of recurrence.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this report was the first to describe the long-term outcome for vertebral angiomatosis in a cat. Surgical decompression and radiation therapy provided an excellent outcome in this case. Vertebral angiomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any young cat with thoracolumbar myelopathy secondary to a mass associated with the vertebral pedicle.
OBJECTIVE To develop contact time (ConT) and withers height-normalized relative ConT (ConT*) for force platform gait analysis of dogs.
ANIMALS 29 healthy client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Height at the most dorsal aspect of the shoulders (withers) was measured with a framing square. Dogs were trotted across a force platform at their preferred velocity with controlled acceleration (± 0.5 m/s2). Ranges of ConT and ConT* centered on the population mean ConT were created. Variance effects on ground reaction forces (GRFs) for 4 thoracic limb and 4 pelvic limb ConT and associated ConT* ranges were examined. Efficiency of trial capture and effects of velocity ranges on GRF variance were determined.
RESULTS Individual dogs had the greatest effect on GRF variance for thoracic and pelvic limbs. Narrow ConT and ConT* ranges had few significant effects on GRFs but were inefficient at capturing trials. The ConT ranges of 0.22 to 0.29 seconds and 0.19 to 0.25 seconds for thoracic and pelvic limbs, respectively, provided the most efficient rates of trial capture with the fewest significant effects on GRFs. Compared with ConT and ConT* ranges, relative velocity ranges had higher efficiency and smaller GRF variance effects.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs of various morphologies have differing limb velocities. Use of ConT as a surrogate for limb velocity may improve GRF data quality. We identified ConT and ConT* ranges associated with low GRF variance. However, relative velocity ranges captured data more efficiently. Efficient capture of data may help avoid worsening of lameness during gait analysis of dogs.
OBJECTIVE To determine survival estimates and outcome predictors for shelter cats with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 177 shelter cats with FPV infection.
PROCEDURES Medical records of cats treated for FPV infection from 2011 through 2013 were reviewed to collect information pertaining to signalment; history; results of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and blood gas analysis; and treatments (antimicrobials, antiparasitics, antivirals, antiemetics, analgesics, crystalloid or colloid solutions, and blood products). Survival time and outcome predictors were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier estimation, logistic regression, and mixed-model ANOVA.
RESULTS Median survival time after hospital admission was 3 days; 20.3% (36/177) of cats survived to discharge from the hospital. Risk of nonsurvival was greater in cats with (vs without) signs of lethargy, rectal temperature < 37.9°C (I00.2°F), or low body weight at hospital admission. Lower (vs higher) leukocyte count on days 3,4, and 7 of hospitalization, but not at admission, was associated with nonsurvival. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, antiparasitics, and maropitant but not interferon-ω were associated with survival, whereas glucose infusion was associated with nonsurvival.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that FPV infection carried a poor prognosis for shelter cats. Several variables measured at admission or during hospitalization were associated with outcome. Remarkably and contrary to the existing literature, leukopenia at admission had no association with outcome, possibly owing to early prevention of complications.