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  • Author or Editor: Enzo R. Campagnolo x
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Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of suicide risk factors, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—11,627 US veterinarians.

Procedures—Between July 1 and October 20, 2014, a Web-based questionnaire was made available through the Veterinary Information Network (VIN), VIN News Service, JAVMA News, and email messages to US veterinarians sent by a veterinary medical association, agriculture or livestock department, or health department of each state (except Maine) and Puerto Rico.

Results—Of 11,627 respondents, 3,628 (31%) were male. Modal age category was 30 to 39 years, and modal range for years practicing veterinary medicine was 10 to 19 years. There were 7,460 (64%) respondents who primarily practiced small animal medicine, and 4,224 (36%) who were practice owners. There were 1,077 (9%) respondents with current serious psychological distress. Since leaving veterinary school, 3,655 (31%) respondents experienced depressive episodes, 1,952 (17%) experienced suicidal ideation, and 157 (1%) attempted suicide. Currently, 2,228 (19%) respondents were receiving treatment for a mental health condition. Only 3,250 of 10,220 (32%) respondents somewhat or strongly agreed that people are sympathetic toward persons with mental illness. The most commonly reported practice-related stressor was demands of practice.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this survey, approximately 1 in 11 veterinarians had serious psychological distress and 1 in 6 experienced suicidal ideation since leaving veterinary school. Implementing measures to help veterinarians cope with practice-related stressors and reducing barriers veterinarians face in seeking mental health treatment might reduce the risk for suicide among veterinarians.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the extent of leptospirosis in persons exposed to infected swine, confirm the source of disease, define risk factors for infection, and identify means for preventing additional infections during an outbreak in Missouri in 1998.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—240 people and 1,700 pigs.

Procedure—An epidemiologic investigation was conducted of people exposed to infected pigs from the University of Missouri-Columbia swine herd. The investigation included review of health of the pigs, a crosssectional study of the people handling the pigs, serologic testing of human and porcine sera, and risk-factor analysis for leptospirosis within the human population.

Results—Serologic testing of samples collected at the time of the investigation indicated that 59% of the pigs had titers to leptospires, denoting exposure. Of the 240 people in the exposed study population, 163 (68%) were interviewed, and of these, 110 (67%) submitted a blood sample. Nine (8%) cases of leptospirosis were confirmed by serologic testing. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis included smoking (odds ratio [OR], 14.4; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.39 to 137.74) and drinking beverages (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.30) while working with infected pigs. Washing hands after work was protective (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.81).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis is a risk for swine producers and slaughterhouse workers, and may be prevented through appropriate hygiene, sanitation, and animal husbandry. It is essential to educate people working with animals or animal tissues about measures for reducing the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:676–682)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association