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Objective—To compare induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in foals.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy foals.

Procedure—Foals were anesthetized twice (once at 1 month of age and again at 3 months of age). Anesthesia was induced by administration of the agent in oxygen through a nasotracheal tube. During maintenance of anesthesia, foals were positioned in dorsal recumbency; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was performed. Characteristics of induction and recovery were recorded. Cardiopulmonary variables were recorded 10 minutes after anesthetic induction and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes later.

Results—All 6 foals were successfully anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane. There were no significant differences between the 2 drugs in regard to characteristics of induction or recovery, and induction and recovery were generally smooth and unremarkable. There were no significant differences between drugs in regard to measured cardiopulmonary variables; however, both drugs caused initial hypotension that resolved over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that isoflurane and sevoflurane can both be used for general anesthesia of 1- to 3-month-old foals. Significant differences between the 2 agents were not detected for any of the variables measured, suggesting that quality of anesthesia with these 2 agents was comparable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 393–398)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the effect of hemi-circumferential periosteal transection and elevation (HCPTE) in foals with experimentally induced angular limb deformities.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy foals.

Procedure—When foals were 30 days old, transphyseal bridge implants were placed on the lateral aspects of both distal radial physes. At 90 days of age (or when 15 degrees of angulation had developed), implants were removed, and HCPTE was performed on 1 limb. Foals were confined in small pens after surgery; the front feet of the foals were rasped weekly to maintain medial-to-lateral hoof wall balance. Dorsopalmar radiographic projections of the carpi were obtained before HCPTE and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 48 weeks later.

Results—At the time of transphyseal bridge removal and HCPTE, both treated and control limbs were observed to have a significantly greater carpal valgus, compared with the initial degree of angulation at 30 days of age. Following HCPTE or sham surgery, all limbs straightened over the subsequent 2 months of the study. Median angulation was not significantly different between treated and control limbs at any time during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in foals with experimentally induced limb deformities, HCPTE was no more effective than stall confinement and hoof trimming alone for correction of the deformity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:536–540)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Advancing equality and equity in society is creating positive change, and the time has come to critically evaluate veterinary medicine, which, by all metrics, lacks diversity. To keep pace with increasingly diverse demographics and recent surges in pet ownership among all racial/ethnic groups, significant efforts to enhance diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) must occur in veterinary colleges and the profession. Recruiting more underrepresented students, building pipelines for diverse faculty/staff, and creating inclusive, welcoming environments where all can thrive are critical steps toward enhancing DEIB within our organizations and profession. Our goal is to share experiences and lessons learned from our intentional commitment to strengthen DEIB, with the hope that our journey will be helpful to others. Increasing diversity in the veterinary profession will be facilitated through removing barriers, creating inclusive work environments where all people feel they belong, and ensuring fair and equitable hiring and personnel management practices. These steps should in turn improve access and quality of veterinary care, ensure we are more representative of the communities we serve, increase revenue, and preserve the human-animal bond.

“You cannot change any society unless you take responsibility for it, unless you see yourself belonging to it, and responsible for changing it.”

– Grace Lee Boggs

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association