OBJECTIVE To evaluate thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).
ANIMALS 16 adult (≥ 2 years old) cockatiels (8 males and 8 females).
PROCEDURES Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.3 mg/mL) at each of 3 doses (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/kg) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were administered IM to birds in a randomized within-subject complete crossover study. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were also determined. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, buprenorphine (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to 12 of the birds, and blood samples were collected at 9 time points ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with commercial software.
RESULTS Buprenorphine at 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/kg did not significantly change the thermal foot withdrawal response, compared with the response for the control treatment. No significant change in agitation-sedation scores was detected between all doses of buprenorphine and the control treatment. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL in all 4 birds evaluated at 9 hours.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Buprenorphine at the doses evaluated did not significantly change the thermal nociceptive threshold for cockatiels or cause sedative or agitative effects. Additional studies with other pain assessments and drug doses are needed to evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of buprenorphine in cockatiels and other avian species.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).
ANIMALS 16 healthy adult cockatiels.
PROCEDURES During the first of 2 study phases, each cockatiel received each of 4 treatments (hydromorphone at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [0.33 mL/kg; control], IM), with a 14-day interval between treatments. For each bird, foot withdrawal to a thermal stimulus was determined following assignment of an agitation-sedation score at predetermined times before and for 6 hours after each treatment. During the second phase, a subset of 12 birds received hydromorphone (0.6 mg/kg, IM), and blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentration was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis of sparse data was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters.
RESULTS Thermal withdrawal response did not differ among the 4 treatment groups at any time. Agitation-sedation scores following administration of the 0.3-and 0.6-mg/kg doses of hydromorphone differed significantly from those treated with saline solution and suggested the drug had a sedative effect. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 3 to 6 hours after drug administration in all birds.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that IM administration of hydromorphone at the evaluated doses did not increase the thermal withdrawal threshold of cockatiels despite plasma drug concentrations considered therapeutic for other species. Further research is necessary to evaluate the analgesic effects of hydromorphone in cockatiels.
OBJECTIVE To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment.
PROCEDURES Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration.
RESULTS A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.