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To assess the clinical outcome of a ferret undergoing a ureteroneocystostomy for treatment of urolithiasis.


A 10-month-old spayed female ferret.


The ferret was evaluated for straining to urinate and defecate, hematochezia, and a rectal prolapse. Plain radiographs revealed large cystic and ureteral calculi. Clinicopathologic analyses indicated the ferret was anemic with an elevated creatinine concentration. Exploratory laparotomy defined bilateral ureteral calculi that were unable to be successfully moved into the bladder. A cystotomy was performed to remove a large cystic calculus. Serial abdominal ultrasonographic examinations showed progressive hydronephrosis of the left kidney and persistent pyelectasia of the right kidney secondary to bilateral ureteral calculi. This confirmed a left ureteral obstruction secondary to the distal calculus while the right ureter remained patent.


A ureteroneocystostomy was performed to allow for left renal decompression. The ferret recovered well despite worsening hydronephrosis of the left kidney in the perioperative period. The ferret was discharged from the hospital 10 days after initial evaluation. At 3-week follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation of the left kidney and ureter.


A ureteroneocystostomy successfully allowed renal decompression and ureteral patency in a ferret with urolithiasis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this procedure has been reported in a ferret for treatment of a ureteral calculus obstruction and may result in good long-term outcome.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the anatomic structures of the canine middle ear visible during endoscopic examination through ventral and lateral surgical approaches.


5 cadaveric canine heads representing 4 breeds.


A descriptive study was performed. For each head, a lateral approach was performed on one side and a ventral approach was performed on the opposite side. Images were obtained with a 2.7-mm, 30° telescope.


Captured images were reviewed, and anatomic structures visualized through the lateral and ventral approaches were identified. The optimal approach, telescope position, and light post orientation to identify each anatomic structure were subjectively determined.


Middle ear evaluation with a telescope was technically straightforward and allowed identification of middle ear structures not typically visible with an open surgical approach. Findings may serve as an anatomic reference guide for future video-assisted surgical procedures of the middle ear. A better understanding of the location of anatomic structures in the middle ear may help to prevent unnecessary damage to fragile middle ear structures, such as nerves or blood vessels, during surgical procedures.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association