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OBJECTIVE To assess 3-D geometry of the humerus of dogs and determine whether the craniocaudal canal flare index (CFI) is associated with specific geometric features.

SAMPLE CT images (n = 40) and radiographs (38) for 2 groups of skeletally mature nonchondrodystrophic dogs.

PROCEDURES General dimensions (length, CFI, cortical thickness, and humeral head offset), curvature (shaft, humeral head, and glenoid cavity), version (humeral head and greater tubercle), and torsion were evaluated on CT images. Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of the craniocaudal CFI, and results were compared among these 3 groups. The CT measurements were compared with radiographic measurements obtained for another group of dogs.

RESULTS Mean ± SD humeral head version was −75.9 ± 9.6° (range, −100.7° to −59.4°). Mean mechanical lateral distal humeral angle, mechanical caudal proximal humeral angle, and mechanical cranial distal humeral angle were 89.5 ± 3.5°, 50.2 ± 4.5°, and 72.9 ± 7.8°, respectively, and did not differ from corresponding radiographic measurements. Mean humeral curvature was 20.4 ± 4.4° (range, 9.6° to 30.5°). Mean craniocaudal CFI was 1.74 ± 0.18 (range, 1.37 to 2.10). Dogs with a high craniocaudal CFI had thicker cranial and medial cortices than dogs with a low craniocaudal CFI. Increased body weight was associated with a lower craniocaudal CFI. Radiographic and CT measurements of craniocaudal CFI and curvature differed significantly.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-based 3-D reconstructions allowed the assessment of shaft angulation, torsion, and CFI. Radiographic and CT measurements of shaft curvature and CFI may differ.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the effect of topically applied dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced synovitis in the mid-carpal joint.


6 sound, healthy, adult horses (12 carpi).


In a double-blinded, crossover, paired study with a 1-week washout period, mid-carpal joints were allocated to group 1 (DMSO, n = 6) or group 2 (control, n = 6). Each joint was injected with 1.3 ml (0.0125 ng/dl) of LPS to induce synovitis. For group-1 joints, DMSO gel (15 g; 90%) was applied after injection of LPS and at 12-hour intervals for 60 hours. Joints of group 2 received LPS, but not DMSO gel. All horses were evaluated by serial lameness examinations and synovial fluid analyses (total and differential WBC count and total protein concentration) at 12- hour intervals for 60 hours after LPS injection. Plasma and synovial fluid were obtained at baseline and 36 hours to document presence of DMSO.


Mean WBC concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group-1, compared with group-2 joints, at 24 hours and had a trend to be lower at 36 hours. Mean total neutrophil count was significantly lower in group-1, compared with group-2 joints at 24 hours. In group-1 joints, DMSO was detected by use of gas chromatography in the synovial fluid of 5 of 6 joints and in plasma from 1 of 6 horses.


Topically applied DMSO penetrated into synovial fluid in sufficient quantities to be detected and to decrease joint inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1149-1152)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



This study sought to determine whether firocoxib (FIRO) or meloxicam (MEL) was effective at providing analgesia after surgical castration in goats.


18 intact male crossbred goats (6 to 8 months old) were enrolled with a mean weight of 32.6 (± 2.9) kg.


Surgical castration was done under injectable anesthesia by a licensed veterinarian. Twelve bucks were surgically castrated and given either FIRO (n = 6) or MEL (n = 6). Six bucks served as controls (CNTLs) and were not castrated. Outcome measurements included visual analogue scale, infrared thermography, plasma cortisol, plasma substance P, and kinetic gait analysis. All outcome measurements were obtained at –24, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours.


All 3 treatments were significantly different from each other at the 24- and 48-hour time points, with MEL animals having lower visual analogue scale scores when compared to FIRO animals; CNTL animals exhibited the lowest plasma cortisol levels (3.19 ng/mL; 95% CI, –1.21 to 7.59 ng/mL) followed by FIRO (7.45 ng/mL; 95% CI, 3.10 to 11.80 ng/mL) and MEL (10.24 ng/mL; 95% CI, 5.87 to 14.60 ng/mL). FIRO had an average mean decrease in gait velocity change (–54.17 cm/s; 95% CI, –92.99 to –15.35 cm/s), while MEL had an increase in gait velocity when compared to baseline values (14.54 cm/s; 95% CI, –24.27 to 53.36 cm/s). Control animals had an average mean of –3.06 cm/s (95% CI, –41.88 to 35.75 cm/s).


Results from this study showed that there were some analgesic effects from administering MEL when compared to bucks that received a placebo treatment (CNTL).

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.

Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.

Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.

Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.

Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association