PROCEDURES Three 5F angiographic catheters of the same length (100 cm) and diameter (0.17 cm) but differing in curvature at the tip were labeled A (straight tip), B (tip bent in 1 place), and C (tip bent in 2 places). During a single anesthetic episode, attempts were made to blindly pass each catheter into the urinary bladder of each goat. Order of catheters used was randomized, and the veterinarian passing the catheter was blinded as to catheter identity. The total number of attempts at catheter passage and the total number of successful attempts were recorded.
RESULTS Catheter A was unsuccessfully passed in all 12 goats, catheter B was successfully passed in 8 goats, and catheter C was successfully passed in 4 goats. The success rate for catheter B was significantly greater than that for catheter A; however, no significant difference was identified between catheters B and C or catheters A and C.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 2 angiographic catheters were identified that could be successfully, blindly advanced in a retrograde direction into the urinary bladder of healthy sexually intact male goats. Such catheters may be useful for determining urethral patency, emptying the urinary bladder, and instilling chemolysing agents in goats with clinical obstructive urolithiasis.
To determine anti-bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antibody titers for nasal secretions and serum from beef calves following administration of a modified-live (MLV) BRSV vaccine.
60 healthy newborn purebred beef calves.
Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intranasal (IN)-SC (IN MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and SC MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), SC-IN (SC MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), or NO-IN (no vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age). Nasal secretion and serum samples were collected for determination of anti-BRSV antibodies within 24 hours of birth and 2 and 6 months of age.
Titers of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in serum were similar among groups at each sampling time. Within 24 hours of birth, nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers were negligible. At 2 months, mean nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers for calves in IN-SC, SC-IN, and NO-IN groups were 192.84, 224.49, and 114.71, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Concentrations of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in the nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in the serum of young beef calves following an MLV BRSV vaccine protocol that consisted of IN or SC vaccine within 24 hours of birth and vice versa at 2 months of age were not different from that following only an IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age. However, the lack of any differences may have been attributed to other factors. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:746–751)