OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with strongyle infection and parasite reduction strategies associated with low strongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) in goats on farms in North Carolina.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 631 adult goats on 52 farms in North Carolina.
PROCEDURES Participating farms were visited to collect fecal samples from goats and administer a survey regarding goat, environmental, and management factors. The McMaster technique was used to determine strongyle FEC for each sample. Univariate followed by multivariate modeling was performed to identify factors associated with FEC at the farm and individual goat level.
RESULTS Multivariate analysis controlling for several other factors and multiple comparisons revealed that farms on which no anthelmintic drugs had ever been used had the lowest mean FECs, compared with farms on which specific strategies for parasite control were used; no other variables were significant. For individual goat FEC, significant variables included goat breed, breed type, owner-defined purpose, daily dietary protein intake, and fecal coccidia score. In particular, companion goats (vs meat or dairy goats) had the lowest FECs. Higher dietary protein intake and coccidia scores were associated with higher FECs. Among females, goats that had kidded in the last 6 weeks had the highest FECs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Various factors were identified that appeared to influence the likelihood of strongyle infection in goats. The finding that farms with no history of anthelmintic use had the lowest mean FECs suggested that a focus on preventative measures could reduce the need for anthelmintic drugs and, by extension, lessen the opportunity for the development of anthelmintic resistance.
OBJECTIVE To assess 3-D geometry of the humerus of dogs and determine whether the craniocaudal canal flare index (CFI) is associated with specific geometric features.
SAMPLE CT images (n = 40) and radiographs (38) for 2 groups of skeletally mature nonchondrodystrophic dogs.
PROCEDURES General dimensions (length, CFI, cortical thickness, and humeral head offset), curvature (shaft, humeral head, and glenoid cavity), version (humeral head and greater tubercle), and torsion were evaluated on CT images. Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of the craniocaudal CFI, and results were compared among these 3 groups. The CT measurements were compared with radiographic measurements obtained for another group of dogs.
RESULTS Mean ± SD humeral head version was −75.9 ± 9.6° (range, −100.7° to −59.4°). Mean mechanical lateral distal humeral angle, mechanical caudal proximal humeral angle, and mechanical cranial distal humeral angle were 89.5 ± 3.5°, 50.2 ± 4.5°, and 72.9 ± 7.8°, respectively, and did not differ from corresponding radiographic measurements. Mean humeral curvature was 20.4 ± 4.4° (range, 9.6° to 30.5°). Mean craniocaudal CFI was 1.74 ± 0.18 (range, 1.37 to 2.10). Dogs with a high craniocaudal CFI had thicker cranial and medial cortices than dogs with a low craniocaudal CFI. Increased body weight was associated with a lower craniocaudal CFI. Radiographic and CT measurements of craniocaudal CFI and curvature differed significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-based 3-D reconstructions allowed the assessment of shaft angulation, torsion, and CFI. Radiographic and CT measurements of shaft curvature and CFI may differ.
OBJECTIVE To compare complications between healthy horses undergoing general anesthesia for ophthalmic versus non-ophthalmic procedures and identify potential risk factors for the development of complications.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 502 horses (556 anesthetic procedures).
PROCEDURES Medical records from January 2012 through December 2014 were reviewed to identify horses undergoing general anesthesia. Signalment, body weight, drugs administered, patient positioning, procedure type (ophthalmic, orthopedic, soft tissue, or diagnostic imaging), specific procedure, procedure time, anesthesia time, recovery time, recovery quality, and postoperative complications were recorded.
RESULTS Patients underwent general anesthesia for ophthalmic (n = 106), orthopedic (246), soft tissue (84), diagnostic imaging (110), or combined (10) procedures. Mean procedure, anesthesia, and recovery times were significantly longer for patients undergoing ophthalmic versus non-ophthalmic procedures. Excluding diagnostic imaging procedures, there was a significant positive correlation between surgery time and recovery time. Within ophthalmic procedures, surgery time, anesthesia time, and recovery time were significantly greater for penetrating keratoplasty versus other ophthalmic procedures. There was a significantly higher rate of postoperative colic following penetrating keratoplasty, compared with all other ophthalmic procedures.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that in healthy horses, duration of general anesthesia should be minimized to decrease the risk of postanesthetic complications. Judicious use of orally administered fluconazole is recommended for horses undergoing general anesthesia. For horses undergoing a retrobulbar nerve block during general anesthesia, use of the lowest effective volume is suggested.
OBJECTIVE To determine attitudes of small animal practitioners toward veterinary clinical trials and variables influencing their likelihood of participating in such trials.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE Small animal practitioners with membership in 1 of 2 online veterinary communities (n = 163 and 652).
PROCEDURES An online survey was developed for each of 2 veterinary communities, and invitations to participate were sent via email. Each survey included questions designed to collect information on the respondents’ willingness to enroll their patients in clinical trials and to recommend participation to clients for their pets.
RESULTS More than 80% of respondents to each survey indicated that they spend no time in clinical research. A high proportion of respondents were likely or extremely likely to recommend clinical trial participation to clients for their pets when those trials involved treatments licensed in other countries, novel treatments, respected investigators, or sponsoring by academic institutions, among other reasons. Reasons for not recommending participation included distance, time restrictions, and lack of awareness of ongoing clinical trials; 28% of respondents indicated that they did not usually learn about such clinical trials. Most respondents (79% to 92%) rated their recommendation of a trial as important to their client's willingness to participate.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Participation in veterinary clinical trials by small animal practitioners and their clients and patients appeared low. Efforts should be increased to raise practitioner awareness of clinical trials for which patients might qualify. Specific elements of trial design were identified that could be modified to increase participation.
OBJECTIVE To assess the repeatability and accuracy of polymer replicas of small, medium, and large long bones of small animals fabricated by use of 2 low-end and 2 high-end 3-D printers.
SAMPLE Polymer replicas of a cat femur, dog radius, and dog tibia were fabricated in triplicate by use of each of four 3-D printing methods.
PROCEDURES 3-D renderings of the 3 bones reconstructed from CT images were prepared, and length, width of the proximal aspect, and width of the distal aspect of each CT image were measured in triplicate. Polymer replicas were fabricated by use of a high-end system that relied on jetting of curable liquid photopolymer, a high-end system that relied on polymer extrusion, a triple-nozzle polymer extrusion low-end system, and a dual-nozzle polymer extrusion low-end system. Polymer replicas were scanned by use of a laser-based coordinate measurement machine. Length, width of the proximal aspect, and width of the distal aspect of the scans of replicas were measured and compared with measurements for the 3-D renderings.
RESULTS 129 measurements were collected for 34 replicas (fabrication of 1 large long-bone replica was unsuccessful on each of the 2 low-end printers). Replicas were highly repeatable for all 3-D printers. The 3-D printers overestimated dimensions of large replicas by approximately 1%.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Low-end and high-end 3-D printers fabricated CT-derived replicas of bones of small animals with high repeatability. Replicas were slightly larger than the original bones.
OBJECTIVE To assess intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and in vivo versus photographic agreement of a scoring system for the implant-skin interface (ISI) of external skeletal fixation (ESF).
SAMPLE 42 photographs of ISIs from 18 dogs for interobserver agreement and intraobserver repeatability and 27 photographs of ISIs from 6 dogs for in vivo versus photograph agreement.
PROCEDURES An ISI inflammation scoring system was developed. It included scales for 6 metrics (erythema, drainage amount, drainage type, swelling, hair loss or lack of hair regrowth, and granulation tissue). Photographs of the ISI of ESF were obtained by use of a standard protocol and evaluated to determine intraobserver repeatability and interobserver agreement (Cronbach α; 4 raters) of the ISI score. Agreement between in vivo and photographic ISI scores (2 raters) and correlation between median scores across metrics were evaluated.
RESULTS 42 photographs met the inclusion criteria. Overall intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.922 to 0.975. Interobserver overall Cronbach α ranged from 0.835 to 0.943. For in vivo versus photographic assessment, 27 ISIs in 6 dogs and their photographs were evaluated. The Cronbach α for both raters ranged from 0.614 to 0.938. Overall, the Cronbach α ranged from 0.725 to 0.932. Mean photographic scores were greater than mean in vivo scores for each metric. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.221 to 0.923. Erythema, swelling, and granulation were correlated with all other metrics.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, an ISI scoring system used in this study had high repeatability and agreement and may therefore be considered for use in clinical situations. Photographic scores were not equivalent to in vivo scores and should not be used interchangeably.
OBJECTIVE To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid immunoassay (RIA) for point-of-care detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) of dogs, compared with criterion-referenced diagnosis with bacterial culture.
SAMPLE 200 urine samples obtained from dogs and submitted to a veterinary microbiology diagnostic laboratory for routine bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility determination.
PROCEDURES Samples were evaluated by use of quantitative bacterial culture and the RIA. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the RIA were calculated; results of bacterial culture were the criterion-referenced outcome. A κ statistic was calculated to determine agreement between bacterial culture and RIA results.
RESULTS 56 of 200 (28%) urine samples had positive results for bacterial growth by use of culture methods; there were 38 (19%) positive results likely to be associated with bacterial UTI on the basis of sample collection method and bacterial concentration. Sensitivity and specificity of the RIA for detecting samples likely to be associated with UTI (≥ 1,000 CFUs/mL) were 97.4% and 98.8%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the RIA for bacterial cultures with likely UTI were 0.949 and 0.994, respectively. Agreement between bacterial culture and RIA outcome for UTI was substantial (weighted κ, 0.718).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The RIA test evaluated in this study accurately detected UTI of dogs, compared with detection with the criterion-referenced bacterial culture method. Use of this point-of-care RIA could allow clinicians to diagnose UTI at the time of a patient visit and provide information useful for immediately initiating empirical antimicrobial treatment. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:162–166)
Procedures—Koi were exposed to each of 4 concentrations of propofol (1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L) with a 1-week washout period between trials. In a subsequent trial, koi were anesthetized with propofol (5 mg/L) and anesthesia was maintained with propofol (3 mg/L) for 20 minutes. Response to a noxious stimulus was assessed by means of needle insertion into an epaxial muscle.
Results—At a propofol concentration of 1 mg/L, koi were sedated but never anesthetized. At propofol concentrations of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L, mean ± SD anesthetic induction times were 13.4 ± 3.3, 3.8 ± 1.1, and 2.3 ± 0.9 minutes, respectively; mean recovery times were 12.9 ± 8.3, 11.0 ± 6.3, and 18.1 ± 13.0 minutes; mean heart rates were 57 ± 25, 30 ± 14, and 22 ± 14 beats/min; mean opercular rates were 58 ± 18, 68 ± 15, and 48 ± 22 beats/min; and 1 of 10, 2 of 10, and 0 of 10 fish responded to needle insertion. All fish recovered satisfactorily. Following 20 minutes of anesthesia, 2 fish had recovery times > 4 hours and 1 fish died.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Immersion in propofol at concentrations ≥ 2.5 mg/L induced general anesthesia in koi. Maintenance of anesthesia with propofol for 20 minutes was associated with prolonged recovery times in 2 of 9 and death in 1 of 9 koi.
To determine whether muscle-sparing laryngoplasty results in fewer changes in swallowing function compared to standard surgical treatment for laryngeal paralysis.
12 clinically normal sexually intact male Beagles.
Group A dogs (n = 4) had a standard approach to the larynx, with left arytenoid cartilage lateralization. Group B dogs (n = 4) had a muscle-sparing laryngoplasty performed with the thyropharyngeus muscle fibers bluntly separated, and the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle spared. Pre- and 24-hour postoperative fluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed and graded. Larynges were harvested after humane euthanasia, and glottic area was measured. Group C dogs (n = 4) acted as controls, with surgical dissection ending lateral to the thyropharyngeus muscle, arytenoid lateralization not performed, and the dogs not euthanized. The study was performed between October 15, 2011 and May 15, 2021.
Changes in pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter function were not detected in any group. There was no difference in glottic area between treatment groups. Aspiration of liquid was not a consistent finding. Two dogs in each treatment group developed moderate to severe cervical esophageal paresis. This did not occur in control dogs.
We found no evidence to support our hypothesis that muscle-sparing laryngoplasty results in less severe changes in swallowing function compared to a standard technique. The cervical esophageal paresis identified in both treatment groups could increase the risk of postoperative aspiration pneumonia in dogs treated for laryngeal paralysis via a lateral approach to the larynx. Further study to determine the frequency, cause, and duration of esophageal dysfunction is warranted.
OBJECTIVE To compare percentages of mast cells in lymph node (LN) aspirate samples from clinically normal dogs, dogs with allergic dermatologic disease (ADD), and dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs).
DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 20 healthy dogs (group 1), 20 dogs with ADD (group 2), and 20 dogs with an MCT on the head or limbs (group 3).
PROCEDURES LN aspirate samples were obtained from easily accessible LNs in group 1, affected skin regions in group 2, and the likely draining LN or LNs of the MCT in group 3; the percentage of mast cells was manually determined for each LN. For group 3, LNs were cytologically categorized with a modified version of a published metastasis categorization scheme.
RESULTS Median (range) percentage of mast cells in aspirate samples was 0% (0% to 0.1%) for group 1, 0.05% (0% to 0.55%) for group 2, and 0.4% (0% to 77.4%) for group 3. In group 3, 16 LNs (13 dogs) were palpably normal in size; 6 of these had evidence of possible or certain metastasis. Seven LNs (7 dogs) in group 3 were palpably enlarged, and 5 of these had evidence of certain metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided evidence to support the use of a uniform cytologic grading system to further define nodal metastasis in dogs with MCTs as well as estimates of the percentage of mast cells in LN aspirate samples for healthy dogs and dogs with ADD. Palpably normal LNs in dogs with cutaneous MCT may contain metastasis.