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  • Author or Editor: Emilie Trehiou-Sechi x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the strength of the relationship between paradoxical breathing (PB) and spontaneous pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—Dogs (n = 195) and cats (194) with a recorded diagnosis of dyspnea examined at the National Veterinary Schools of Alfort and Toulouse (France) between January 2001 and October 2009.

Procedures—Dogs and cats were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of PB. Stratified analysis by species was performed. Signalment of affected animals and occurrence of PB were recorded. The relationship between PB and pleural diseases among dyspneic dogs and cats was analyzed.

Results—A strong relationship between PB and pleural diseases was highlighted in multivariate analysis (dogs, OR = 12.6 and 95% confidence interval = 4.6 to 31.2; cats, OR = 14.1 and 95% confidence interval = 6.0 to 33.5). Paradoxical breathing prevalence among dyspneic dogs and cats was 27% and 64%, respectively. Occurrence of pleural diseases in dyspneic animals with and without PB was 49% and 9% in dogs and 66% and 13% in cats, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PB as a predictor of pleural diseases were 0.67 and 0.83 in dyspneic dogs and 0.90 and 0.58 in dyspneic cats, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of PB were 0.49 and 0.91 in dyspneic dogs and 0.66 and 0.87 in dyspneic cats, respectively. Age, sex, feline breeds, and canine morphotypes in patients with PB were not significantly different from those of other dyspneic animals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PB was strongly associated with pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats. The presence of this clinical sign should prompt small animal practitioners to implement appropriate emergency procedures and guide their diagnostic strategy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the signalment, clinical features, echocardiographic findings, and outcome of dogs and cats with ventricular septal defects (VSDs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—56 dogs and 53 cats with VSDs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs and cats with VSDs diagnosed by means of conventional and Doppler echocardiography were reviewed. Signalment, clinical status, echocardiographic findings, and outcome data were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for the study population and subgroups according to species and clinical status.

Results—VSDs were isolated (ie, solitary defects) in 53 of 109 (48.6%) patients. Most (82/109 [75.2%]) VSDs were membranous or perimembranous. Terriers and French Bulldogs were commonly represented canine breeds. Most isolated VSDs were subclinical (43/53 [81%]) and had a pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio < 1. 5 (24/32 [75%]). The VSD diameter and VSD-to-aortic diameter ratio were significantly correlated with pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in dogs (r = 0.529 and r = 0.689, respectively) and in cats (r = 0.713 and r = 0.829, respectively). One dog underwent open surgical repair for an isolated VSD and was excluded from survival analysis. Of the remaining animals with isolated VSDs for which data were available (37/52 [71%]), no subclinically affected animals developed signs after initial diagnosis, and median age at death from all causes was 12 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs and cats with isolated VSDs had a long survival time; few had clinical signs at diagnosis, and none with follow-up developed clinical signs after diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:166–175)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiological, clinical, and echocardiographic features of dogs and cats with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and determine their survival times.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 15 dogs and 16 cats with a diagnosis of TOF as determined via echocardiography.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats were reviewed to extract information on signalment, clinical status at the time of TOF diagnosis, echocardiographic findings, and any outcome data.

RESULTS The most common canine breeds were terrier types (n = 7). Most animals (28/31 [90%]) had clinical signs of TOF at the time of diagnosis, including cyanosis (16/31 [52%]). Pulmonic stenosis was characterized by a variable systolic Doppler-derived pressure gradient (median [range], 108 mm Hg [26 to 255 mm Hg]). Most ventricular septal defects were large, with a median (range) ratio of the diameter of the ventricular septal defect to that of the aorta of 0.60 (0.18 to 1.15). Median age at cardiac-related death was 23.4 months, with no significant difference between dogs and cats. Median survival time from TOF diagnosis to cardiac-related death was briefer for animals with no or low-grade heart murmur (3.4 months) than for those with higher-grade heart murmur (16.4 months). After adjustment for age and sex, having a lack of or a low- to mild-grade systolic heart murmur was significantly associated with a briefer survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With a few exceptions, cardiac-related death occurred predominantly in young adult dogs and cats with TOF, and most animals had severe clinical signs at the time of TOF diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To document RBC abnormalities in dogs with congenital ventricular outflow tract obstruction.


62 dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) or aortic stenosis (AS) and 20 control dogs were recruited.


The proportions of RBCs that were schistocytes, acanthocytes, and keratocytes were assessed. Complete blood cell counts were performed. Tested variables included hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and erythrocyte count.


Median (interquartile range [IQR]) peak systolic Doppler-derived trans-stenotic pressure gradient (∆P) values were 161 mm Hg (108 to 215 mm Hg) and 134 mm Hg (125 to 165 mm Hg) for dogs with PS and AS, respectively. Hematologic abnormalities were detected in most dogs with AS or PS (54/62 [87%]) versus 8/20 [40%] in control dogs, with schistocytes found in 40 of 62 (65%; median, 0.1% RBCs; IQR, 0% to 0.3%), acanthocytes in 29 of 62 (47%; median, 0.3% RBCs; IQR, 0% to 0.9%), keratocytes in 39 of 62 (63%; median, 0% RBCs; IQR, 0% to 0.2%), and hemolytic anemia in 4 dogs with PS. No significant association was identified between these abnormalities and ∆P. However, 3 of 4 dogs with anemia had a ∆P > 200 mm Hg (range, 242 to 340 mm Hg). The dog with the highest ∆P value also had the most severe anemia and schistocytosis, and both resolved after balloon valvuloplasty.


Poikilocytosis is common in dogs with congenital ventricular outflow tract obstruction, with anemia only observed in few dogs with high ∆P values.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research