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  • Author or Editor: Elwyn C. Firth x
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Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effect of exercise during yearling sales preparation on the risk of interruptions during training in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Animals—114 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedures—Information regarding the daily exercise of yearlings during sales preparation was obtained prospectively from a convenience sample of stud farms. Yearlings were followed to entry into race training, and subsequently, daily training information was recorded until the end of the racing season. Competing-risks survival analysis was used to model time from entry into race training to voluntary training interruption (no known condition or disease identified) and time from entry into race training to involuntary training interruption (due to presence of a condition or disease) occurring before the first trial (practice race for education). Total hand walking time and mechanical walker time accumulated during sales preparation were the main exposures of interest.

Results—82 of 114 (71.9%) horses had an interruption before the first trial; 65 (79%) interruptions were voluntary, and 17 (21 %) interruptions were involuntary. Increased total hand walking time was significantly associated with decreased risk of voluntary interruptions, whereas longer cumulative distances at a canter were significantly associated with decreased risk of involuntary interruptions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results identified an association between early exercise during sales preparation and decreased risk of voluntary interruption and increased risk of involuntary interruption during training of 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses. Further investigation into the effects of early exercise on racing performance is needed, but results have indicated that there may be an opportunity to modify early exercise programs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of exercise at an early age on tissues in the metacarpophalangeal joints of horses.

Animals—Twelve 18-month-old horses.

Procedures—All horses were pasture reared, but 6 horses had additional exercise starting at 3 weeks of age until 18 months of age. At that time, computed tomography, articular cartilage metabolism evaluation, and histologic assessments of synovial membrane, articular cartilage, and subchondral bone were performed.

Results—Exercised horses had fewer gross lesions, less articular cartilage matrix staining in the dorsal aspect of the condyle, greater bone fraction in the dorsolateral aspect of the condyle, and higher bone formation rate, compared with nonexercised horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exercise at a young age may be protective to joints, although more research is needed to characterize changes in articular cartilage matrix. Results suggested that exercise can be safely imposed at an early age.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the influence of early conditioning exercise on the development of gross cartilage defects and swelling behavior of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) in the midcarpal joint of horses.

Animals—12 Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—6 horses underwent early conditioning exercise from birth to 18 months of age (CONDEX group), and 6 horses were used as control animals (PASTEX group). The horses were euthanized at 18 months of age, and the midcarpal joints were harvested. Gross defects of the cartilage surface were classified and mapped. Opposing surfaces of the third and radial carpal bones were used to quantify swelling behavior of the cartilage ECM.

Results—A wide range of gross defects was detected in the cartilage on the opposing surfaces of the bones of the midcarpal joint; however, there was no significant difference between the CONDEX and PASTEX groups. Similarly, no significant difference in swelling behavior of the cartilage ECM was evident between the CONDEX and PASTEX groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the study reported here, we did not detect negative influences of early conditioning exercise on the prevalence of gross defects in cartilage of the midcarpal joint or the quality of the cartilage ECM as defined by swelling behavior. These results suggested that early conditioning exercise may be used without negative consequences for the midcarpal joint and the cartilage ECM of the third and radial carpal bones.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe and measure histologic features of midcarpal joint cartilage defects in Thoroughbreds and evaluate the influence of early conditioning exercise on defect development.

Sample—24 midcarpal joints from twelve 18-month-old Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—Midcarpal joints from 12 horses (6 exercised spontaneously at pasture only and 6 given additional conditioning exercise beginning at a mean age of 3 weeks were evaluated. Gross cartilage defects were assessed histologically. Third and radial carpal bones were categorized with regard to the presence or absence of calcified cartilage (CC) abnormalities at the dorsoproximal and dorsodistal articular surfaces, respectively; histomorphometric assessment and statistical analysis were conducted for the third carpal bone.

Results—Number and severity of defects did not appear different between exercise groups. Nine third or radial carpal bones had thickened CC with microcracks, matrix and osteochondral junction changes, and increased vascularity, without histologic changes in the hyaline cartilage. Third carpal bones with CC abnormalities had significantly thicker CC (452 vs 228 μm) than did those without CC abnormalities in the evaluated region. However, in the same region, there were no significant differences in hyaline cartilage thickness (681 vs 603 μm), vascular channel area in the subchondral bone (624,894 vs 490,320 μm2), or number of vascular channels (15.9 vs 18.0).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Early exercise did not appear to influence the distribution or severity of cartilage defects in the midcarpal joint. Calcified cartilage abnormalities beneath the undisrupted hyaline cartilage in the dorsoproximal aspect of the third carpal bone may represent the first changes in the pathogenesis of midcarpal osteochondral disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate histomorphometric changes in the cartilage and subchondral bone of the third carpal bone associated with conditioning exercise in young Thoroughbreds.

Animals—Nine 18-month-old Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—Both third carpal bones of 9 horses (4 exercised spontaneously at pasture only and 5 given additional conditioning exercise beginning at a mean age of 3 weeks) were evaluated. Histomorphometric variables (hyaline and calcified cartilage thickness and collagen orientation; vascular channel area, number, and orientation; and osteochondral junction rugosity) of the third carpal bone, sampled at 4 dorsopalmar sites in the radial facet, were compared between the exercised and nonexercised groups.

Results—The vascular channel area measured at the 4 dorsopalmar sites was larger in the exercised group than in the control group, but none of the variables were significantly different between groups. Both groups had significant site-specific variations in all measured variables. Most importantly, the vascular channel area was highest in the most dorsal aspect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the mild exercise imposed in both groups during the developmental period appeared to be associated with an increase in the vascular channel area beneath the calcified cartilage layer in the third carpal bone. This increased vascular channel area could also be associated with high stress in the dorsal aspect of the radial facet, a region that is known to be vulnerable to osteochondral fragmentation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research