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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of enteropathogens in cats entering an animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—100 cats evaluated at an open-admission municipal animal shelter in Florida.

Procedures—Fecal samples collected within 24 hours after admission from 50 cats with normal feces and 50 cats with diarrhea were tested by fecal flotation, antigen testing, PCR assay, and electron microscopy for selected enteropathogens.

Results—12 enteropathogens were identified. Cats with diarrhea were no more likely to be infected with ≥ 1 (84%) enteropathogens than were cats with normal feces (84%). Only feline coronavirus was significantly more prevalent in cats with diarrhea (58%) than in cats with normal feces (36%). Other enteropathogens identified in cats with and without diarrhea included Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A (42% and 50%, respectively), Cryptosporidium spp (10% and 20%, respectively), Giardia spp (20% and 8%, respectively), Cystoisospora spp (14% and 10%, respectively), hookworms (10% and 18%, respectively), ascarids (6% and 16%, respectively), Salmonella spp (6% and 4%, respectively), astrovirus (8% and 2%, respectively), feline panleukopenia virus (4% and 4%, respectively), calicivirus (0% and 2%, respectively), and Spirometra spp (0% and 2%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, cats entered the shelter with a variety of enteropathogens, many of which are pathogenic or zoonotic. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or any specific risk factors such as signalment, source, or body condition, making it difficult to predict which cats were most likely to be infected. It is not possible to test all shelter cats for all possible infections, so practical guidelines should be developed to treat routinely for the most common and important enteropathogens.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of enteropathogens in dogs entering an animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—100 dogs evaluated at an open-admission municipal animal shelter in Florida.

Procedures—Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours after admission from 50 dogs with normal feces and 50 dogs with diarrhea. Feces were tested by fecal flotation, antigen testing, PCR assay, and electron microscopy for selected enteropathogens.

Results—13 enteropathogens were identified. Dogs with diarrhea were significantly more likely to be infected with ≥ 1 enteropathogens (96%) than were dogs with normal feces (78%). Only Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A gene was significantly more common in dogs with diarrhea (64%) than in dogs with normal feces (40%). Other enteropathogens identified in dogs with and without diarrhea included hookworms (58% and 48%, respectively), Giardia spp (22% and 16%, respectively), canine enteric coronavirus (2% and 18%, respectively), whipworms (12% and 8%, respectively), Cryptosporidium spp (12% and 2%, respectively), ascarids (8% and 8%, respectively), Salmonella spp (2% and 6%, respectively), Cystoisospora spp (2% and 4%, respectively), canine distemper virus (8% and 0%, respectively), Dipylidium caninum (2% and 2%, respectively), canine parvovirus (2% and 2%, respectively), and rotavirus (2% and 0%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs entered the shelter with a variety of enteropathogens, many of which are pathogenic or zoonotic. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or any specific dog characteristics, making it difficult to predict the risk of nfection for individual animals. Guidelines for preventive measures and empirical treatments that are logistically and financially feasible for use in shelters should be developed for control of the most common and important enteropathogens.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A dose titration study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of clorsulon against the adult stage of Fasciola hepatica in goats. Thirty-nine goats were experimentally infected with metacercariae of F hepatica. At 14 weeks after infection, each goat was assigned randomly to 1 of 5 groups. Goats in groups 1 to 4 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 3.5, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The fifth group of goats (control group) was infected with F hepatica, but were not treated with clorsulon. Postmortem examination of goats at 3 weeks after treatment revealed mean reductions in numbers of flukes of 83, 98, 99, and 100% for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Mean percentage of reduction in eggs following treatment of groups was 82, 98, 100, and 100%, respectively.

The clinical effects of clorsulon in 24 goats that were not infected with F hepatica were studied. Goats in groups 1 to 3 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 7, 21, and 35 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for a total of 3 doses/goat. Group-4 goats (control group) received a vehicle placebo. Goats in group 3 were subject to postmortem examination at 14 days after dosing. Abnormal signs or lesions that could be attributed to clorsulon were not found in any goat.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A regional prospective study of the epidemiology of bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes covering 11 countries in Central America and the Caribbean took place between 1987 and 1992. Active surveillance revealed btv infection to be endemic in the absence of confirmed indigenous cases of bluetongue. During the 6-year span of the study, over 300 btv isolations were obtained from cattle and sheep. Results of the earlier years of the study were summarized, and surveillance activities in the concluding months of the study from November 1990 to February 1992 were evaluated. Forty-five btv isolations were made during this time, 44 from sentinel cattle and 1 from a ram with clinical signs compatible with contagious ecthyma. Virus isolation from potential vectors also was attempted, yielding a further 9 btv isolates from parous Culicoides insignis and C pusillus, 2 btv isolates from blood engorged C filarifer, and 1 epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus type-2 isolate from parous C pusillus. Our extensive network of sentinel herds in the region detected btv-1 as the predominant serotype in Central America in 1991, after an apparent absence of 1 year in the sentinel animals. Other serotypes in Central America at that time included btv-3 and btv-6 in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, btv-4 became the predominant serotype, without detection of btv-8 and btv-17, which were common in recent years of the study. The serotypes found in the Caribbean Basin continued to have marked differences from those in North America. The importance of viewing bluetongue as an infection, the distribution of which is determined principally by ecologic factors, is emphasized.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Results of a prospective serologic and virologic study of ruminant livestock in Central America and the Caribbean islands revealed bluetongue virus (btv) to be enzootic in the 9 countries participating in the study. Bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 3, 6, and 12 were isolated from sentinel animals. To the authors’ knowledge, these are the first isolations of btv from the region studied and the first isolations of these serotypes in the Western Hemisphere. Clinical disease attributable to btv infection was not observed in sentinel animals. The incidence pattern, with respect to age and geographic location, was determined. The need to evaluate the epizootiologic features of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) on a regional ecologic basis is stressed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research