Case Description—A 3.5-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was examined for dysuria of unknown duration.
Clinical Findings—Urogenital examination revealed a recessed vulva and a persistent hymen. The hymen was broken down digitally. Results of urinalysis at the referral examination were unremarkable, and no clinically relevant abnormalities were detected on clinicopathologic analysis of blood and serum samples or cytologic evaluation of a vaginal smear. After clinical signs persisted, retrograde contrast vaginourethrocystography was performed; results were considered normal. During uroendoscopic examination, a translucent membranous structure was detected that partially obstructed the urethral lumen near the junction of the urethra and bladder.
Treatment and Outcome—Passage of the endoscope into the urinary bladder ruptured the membranous structure. The dog recovered from the procedure uneventfully and was treated with colchicine (0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 14 days). One month later, the owner reported resolution of clinical signs. Fourteen months later, the patient was evaluated for recurrence of dysuria of several months' duration. Uroendoscopic examination revealed a membranous structure similar to that originally detected; this tissue was also ruptured during endoscopy. The patient was discharged and the owner was instructed to administer colchicine at the same dosage. Recurrence of dysuria was reported again 10 months following the second procedure.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this type of membranous urethral obstruction has not been previously described in a dog. Administration of colchicine did not prevent recurrence, but potential effects of drug administration on time to recurrence could not be evaluated.
Case Description—A 6-year-old male castrated Shetland Sheepdog was evaluated because of severe hypokalemia and progressive paresis.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed fever, tachypnea, mydriasis, hyperemic mucous membranes, severe forelimb paresis, and hind limb paraplegia. The dog had superficial and deep pain sensation in all 4 limbs. Forelimb spinal reflexes were considered normal, but hind limb reflexes were normal to slightly hyperreflexive. The panniculus reflex was considered to be normal, and cranial nerve reflexes were intact. A CBC revealed mild leukocytosis and erythrocytosis, and serum biochemical analysis revealed severe hypokalemia. Thoracic and abdominal imaging did not reveal relevant findings. Blood pressure and ECG findings were within reference limits. Questioning of the owner revealed possible exposure to albuterol via ingestion of medication intended for the owner's horse. Results of serum testing via immunoassay were suggestive of albuterol toxicosis.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatment included IV administration of an electrolyte solution and supplemental potassium chloride. The rate of potassium chloride supplementation was slowly decreased as serum potassium concentration increased. No other medical intervention was required, and the dog made a rapid and complete recovery.
Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of albuterol can lead to profound physical and serum biochemical abnormalities. Appropriate historical information should be obtained to identify possible sources and routes of exposure to intoxicants. Albuterol-induced hypokalemia can be successfully managed medically.
Objective—To determine the effects of ketamine hydrochloride on hemodynamic and immunologic alterations associated with experimentally induced endotoxemia in dogs.
Animals—9 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—In a crossover study, dogs were randomly allocated to receive ketamine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, followed by IV infusion at a rate of 0.12 mg/kg/h for 2.5 hours) or control solution (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, 0.25 mL, IV, followed by IV infusion at a rate of 0.5 mL/h for 2.5 hours). Onset of infusion was time 0. At 30 minutes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/kg, IV) was administered. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α activity, and a CBC were evaluated.
Results—Mean SAP was significantly reduced in dogs administered ketamine or saline solution at 2 and 2.5 hours, compared with values at time 0. However, there was no significant difference between treatments. At 1, 2, and 2.5 hours, dogs administered ketamine had a significantly lower HR than dogs administered saline solution. Although plasma TNF-α activity significantly increased, compared with values at time 0 for both groups, ketamine-treated dogs had significantly lower peak plasma TNF-α activity 1.5 hours after LPS administration. All dogs had significant leukopenia and neutropenia after LPS administration, with no differences detected between ketamine and saline solution treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine had immunomodulating effects in dogs with experimentally induced endotoxemia (namely, blunting of plasma TNF-α activity). However, it had little effect on hemodynamic stability and no effect on WBC counts.
Objective—To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT.
Animals—431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks.
Procedures—Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected.
Results—Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.