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  • Author or Editor: Elizabeth R. Rozanski x
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Objective—To establish a focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) protocol in dogs, determine whether FAST can be performed by veterinary clinicians without extensive ultrasonographic experience, and assess the frequency of free fluid (as determined via FAST) in the abdominal cavity of dogs following motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 client-owned dogs evaluated within 24 hours of an MVA.

Procedure—Dogs were placed in lateral recumbency for the FAST examination. To detect fluid in the abdomen, 2 ultrasonographic views (transverse and longitudinal) were obtained at each of 4 sites (just caudal to the xiphoid process, on the midline over the urinary bladder, and at the left and right flank regions).

Results—In the 100 dogs evaluated via FAST, free abdominal fluid was detected in 45 dogs. In 40 of those 45 dogs, abdominocentesis was performed; hemoperitoneum and uroperitoneum were diagnosed in 38 and 2 dogs, respectively. Compared with dogs that had no free abdominal fluid detected via FAST, dogs that had free abdominal fluid detected via FAST had significantly higher heart rates and serum lactate concentrations and significantly lower PCVs and total solid concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that FAST is a simple and rapid technique that can be performed on dogs in an emergency setting to detect intra-abdominal free fluid and can be performed by veterinary clinicians with minimal previous ultrasonographic experience. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1198–1204)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the clinical course of dogs with hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) and to determine whether factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) was associated with severity of clinical signs and outcome.

Design—Survey study.

Sample—Respondent information for 39 client-owned dogs with FVIII deficiency.

Procedures—Information was obtained via a survey distributed to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care email list serves and to the Veterinary Information Network community to identify dogs with hemophilia A (FVIII:C ≤ 20%). Severity of FVIII deficiency was classified as mild (FVIII:C, 6% to 20%), moderate (FVIII:C, 2% to 5%), or severe (FVIII:C, < 2%).

Results—Data for 39 dogs (38 males and 1 female) were compiled. Mixed-breed dogs, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers were most commonly affected. In most (34/39) dogs, disease was diagnosed at < 1 year of age. Bleeding associated with teething, minor trauma, vaccination, and elective surgical procedures most commonly prompted FVIII:C testing. Affected dogs had similar signs of spontaneous hemorrhage regardless of the magnitude of FVIII deficiency. Four dogs were euthanized without treatment at the time of diagnosis. Thirty dogs received ≥ 1 blood transfusion; FVIII:C did not appear to influence transfusion requirements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with hemophilia A have variations in clinical course of the disease and may have a good long-term prognosis. Residual FVIII:C may not be useful for predicting severity of clinical signs, transfusion needs, or long-term prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic (NT-proBNP) concentration could be used to identify cardiac disease in dogs and to assess disease severity in affected dogs.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—119 dogs with mitral valve disease, 18 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Serum NT-proBNP concentration was measured with an ELISA validated for use in dogs. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and serum biochemical analyses were recorded for dogs with cardiac disease.

Results—Serum NT-proBNP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with cardiac disease than in control dogs, and a serum NT-proBNP concentration > 445 pmol/L could be used to discriminate dogs with cardiac disease from control dogs with a sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 90.0%. In dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration was correlated with heart rate, respiratory rate, echocardiographic heart size, and renal function. For dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration could be used to discriminate dogs with and without radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly and dogs with and without congestive heart failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that serum NT-proBNP concentration may be a useful adjunct clinical test for diagnosing cardiac disease in dogs and assessing the severity of disease in dogs with cardiac disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



The primary goal was to compare the efficacy of administration of apomorphine (APO) administered by intranasal (IN), transconjunctival (TC), SC and IV routes with ropinirole eye drops for induction of emesis in dogs with a secondary goal to evaluate the time of emesis as well as difficulty in administration.


125 client-owned dogs.


Dogs were randomly enrolled between October 1, 2021, and March 30, 2022, into groups of 25: IV APO, IN APO, TC APO, SC APO, and ropinirole eye drops. The IV, SC, and TC groups were dosed at 0.03 mg/kg, the IN group was dosed at 0.06 mg/kg, and the ropinirole group was dosed according to manufacturer guidelines. Data collected included success rate of emesis within 600 seconds, time to emesis, time to administer, and difficulty score. Results were compared to IV with P values and CIs being adjusted for multiple comparisons.


Emesis was successful within 600 seconds using IV APO in 22 of 25 dogs. By comparison, IN APO induced emesis in 18 of 25 dogs (P = .63). Ropinirole (14/25), SC APO (6/25), and TC APO (4/25) were significantly less successful (P = .047, P = < .001, and P < 0.001, respectively). When emesis was successful, it occurred most rapidly with TC APO, followed by IN APO and then ropinirole. It was most difficult to administer IV APO and TC APO.


Similar to IV APO, IN APO was a rapid, easy, and effective method of inducing emesis in dogs and should be considered when IV administration is not possible. Ropinirole was easy to administer but successfully induced emesis less reliably within a 10-minute timeframe. APO administered TC using the commercially compounded injectable formulation was ineffective.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs.


60 healthy dogs.


Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, Po2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration.


Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and Pco2, but correlation coefficients were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:521-524)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds and determine whether affected dogs had coagulation abnormalities and hypertension.

Design—Multi-institutional, retrospective study.

Animals—21 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records (including diagnostic testing results) and MRI images of the brain were reviewed for Greyhounds with ischemic stroke that had been evaluated at 4 institutions. The proportion of Greyhounds with ischemic stroke was compared with the proportion of non-Greyhound dogs with ischemic stroke. Demographic information for dogs evaluated at each institution was obtained to determine the proportion of Greyhounds in the hospital populations.

Results—21 Greyhounds with ischemic stroke were identified. Abnormalities in coagulation were not identified in the 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. Systemic hypertension was identified in 6 of 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. No other abnormalities were identified by means of other routine diagnostic tests for Greyhounds. For all institutions combined, the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds was 0.66% (21/3,161 Greyhounds). Greyhounds were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of ischemic stroke, compared with all other dog breeds combined (OR, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.2 to 10.2).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that Greyhounds were predisposed to ischemic stroke, compared with all other breeds combined. Coagulation abnormalities did not seem to contribute to ischemic stroke. Hypertension may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. Greyhounds with ischemic stroke should undergo measurement of systolic arterial blood pressure. Antihypertensive treatments may be warranted for such dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of urinary bladder lavage on in-hospital recurrence of urethral obstruction (UO) and durations of urinary catheter retention and hospitalization for male cats.

DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS 137 male cats with UO.

PROCEDURES Following random allocation, cats either did (flush group; n = 69) or did not (no-flush group; 68) undergo urinary bladder lavage with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after alleviation of the obstruction and placement of a urethral catheter. Signalment, prior history of UO, presence of crystalluria, difficulty of urinary tract catheterization, in-hospital UO recurrence rate, and durations of urinary catheter retention and hospitalization were compared between the flush and no-flush groups.

RESULTS Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. The in-hospital UO recurrence rate (9/69 [13%]) and median durations of urinary catheter retention (37 hours; range, 3 to 172 hours) and hospitalization (3 days; range, 0.5 to 12 days) for the flush group did not differ significantly from the in-hospital UO recurrence rate (13/68 [19%]) and median durations of urinary catheter retention (36 hours; range, 1 to 117 hours) and hospitalization (3 days; range, 1 to 9 days) for the no-flush group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, for male cats with UO, urinary bladder lavage at the time of urethral catheterization had no significant effect on in-hospital recurrence rate of the condition, duration of urinary catheter retention, or duration of hospitalization; however, additional studies are necessary to validate or refute these findings.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Eighteen dogs undergoing lateral thoracotomy at the left fifth intercostal space were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 postoperative analgesic treatment groups of 6 dogs each as follows: group A, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, im; group B, 0.5% bupivacaine, 1.5 mg/kg given interpleurally; and group C, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg given interpleurally. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, rectal temperature, pain score, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded hourly for the first 8 hours after surgery, and at postoperative hours 12, 24, and 48. These values were compared with preoperative (control) values for each dog. Serum morphine and cortisol concentrations were measured at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, hours 1 to 8, and 12 hours after treatment administration.

All dogs had significant decreases in pHa, PaO2 , and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and significant increases in PaCO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen differences in the postoperative period, but these changes were less severe in group-B dogs. Decreases of 50% in lung compliance, and increases of 100 to 200% in work of breathing and of 185 to 383% in pulmonary resistance were observed in all dogs after surgery. Increases in work of breathing were lower, and returned to preoperative values earlier in group-B dogs. The inspiratory time-to-total respiratory time ratio was significantly higher in group-B dogs during post-operative hours 5 to 8, suggesting improved analgesia. Blood pressure was significantly lower in group-A dogs for the first postoperative hour. Significant decreases in rectal temperature were observed in all dogs after surgery, and hypothermia was prolonged in dogs of groups A and C. Significant differences in pain score were not observed between treatment groups. Cortisol concentration was high in all dogs after anesthesia and surgery, and was significantly increased in group-B dogs at hours 4 and 8. Significant differences in serum morphine concentration between groups A and C were only observed 10 minutes after treatment administration. In general, significant differences in physiologic variables between groups A and C were not observed.

Results of the study indicate that anesthesia and thoracotomy are associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function and lung mechanics. Interpleurally administered bupivacaine appears to be associated with fewer blood gas alterations and earlier return to normal of certain pulmonary function values. Interpleural administration of morphine does not appear to provide any advantages, in terms of analgesia or pulmonary function, compared with its im administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) could be identified in dogs with sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage, and whether the number of affected organ systems was significantly associated with mortality rate.

Design—Multicenter retrospective case series.

Animals—114 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs treated surgically because of sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage between 2003 and 2007 were reviewed. Sepsis was diagnosed on the basis of results of bacterial culture of peritoneal fluid, gross evidence of gastrointestinal tract leakage at surgery, or both. Renal dysfunction was defined as a ≥ 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration after surgery. Cardiovascular dysfunction was defined as hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment. Respiratory dysfunction was defined as a need for supplemental oxygen administration or mechanical ventilation. Hepatic dysfunction was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration > 0.5 mg/dL. Dysfunction of coagulation was defined as prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, or platelet count ≤ 100,000/μL.

Results—89 (78%) dogs had dysfunction of 1 or more organ systems, and 57 (50%) dogs had MODS. Mortality rate increased as the number of dysfunctional organ systems increased. Mortality rate was 70% (40/57) for dogs with MODS and 25% (14/57) for dogs without.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that MODS, defined as dysfunction of at least 2 organ systems, can be identified in dogs with sepsis and that organ system dysfunction increased the odds of death.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association