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  • Author or Editor: Elizabeth M. Whitley x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether trilostane or ketotrilostane is more potent in dogs and determine the trilostane and ketotrilostane concentrations that inhibit adrenal gland cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone secretion by 50%.

Sample—24 adrenal glands from 18 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Adrenal gland tissues were sliced, placed in tissue culture, and stimulated with 100 pg of ACTH/mL alone or with 5 concentrations of trilostane or ketotrilostane. Trials were performed independently 4 times. In each trial, 6 samples (1 for each time point) were collected for each of the 5 concentrations of trilostane and ketotrilostane tested as well as a single negative control samples. At the end of 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 hours, tubes were harvested and media and tissue slices were assayed for cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, and potassium concentrations. Data were analyzed via pharmacodynamic modeling. One adrenal slice exposed to each concentration of trilostane or ketotrilostane was submitted for histologic examination to assess tissue viability.

Results—Ketotrilostane was 4.9 and 2.4 times as potent in inhibiting cortisol and corticosterone secretion, respectively, as its parent compound trilostane. For trilostane and ketotrilostane, the concentrations that inhibited secretion of cortisol or corticosterone secretion by 50% were 480 and 98.4 ng/mL, respectively, and 95.0 and 39.6 ng/mL, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketotrilostane was more potent than trilostane with respect to inhibition of cortisol and corticosterone secretion. The data should be useful in developing future studies to evaluate in vivo serum concentrations of trilostane and ketotrilostane for efficacy in the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess serum 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and corticosterone concentrations in dogs with nonadrenal neoplasia and dogs being screened for hyperadrenocorticism.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—16 clinically normal dogs, 35 dogs with nonadrenal neoplasia, and 127 dogs with suspected hyperadrenocorticism.

Procedure—ACTH stimulation tests were performed in all dogs. Baseline serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations were measured in the healthy dogs; baseline serum cortisol concentration and ACTH-stimulated cortisol, corticosterone, and 17OHP concentrations were measured in all dogs. Endogenous plasma ACTH concentration was also measured before administration of ACTH in dogs with neoplasia.

Results—In 35 dogs with neoplasia, 31.4% had high serum 17OHP concentration and 22.9% had high serum corticosterone concentration. Of the 127 dogs with suspected hyperadrenocorticism, 59 (46.5%) had high ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations; of those, 42 of 59 (71.2%) and 32 of 53 (60.4%) had high serum 17OHP and corticosterone concentrations, respectively. Of dogs with serum cortisol concentration within reference range after ACTH administration, 9 of 68 (13.2%) and 7 of 67 (10.4%) had high serum 17OHP and corticosterone concentrations, respectively. In the dogs with neoplasia and dogs suspected of having hyperadrenocorticism, post-ACTH serum hormone concentrations were significantly correlated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum concentrations of 17OHP or corticosterone after administration of ACTH may be high in dogs with nonadrenal neoplasia and no evidence of hyperadrenocorticism. Changes in serum 17OHP or corticosterone concentrations after administration of ACTH are proportionate with changes in cortisol concentration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1762–1767)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To document hepatozoonosis in dogs from Alabama and Georgia and to report associated clinical signs, method of diagnosis, response to treatment, and course of disease.


Retrospective case series.


22 dogs in which Hepatozoon canis was identified by microscopic examination of skeletal muscle.


We reviewed medical records of all dogs with a definitive diagnosis of hepatozoonosis that were referred to the Auburn University Small Animal Clinic between 1989 and 1994.


Diagnoses were confirmed by microscopic identification of H canis schizont or merozoite stages in skeletal muscle. The gametocyte stage was not detected in smears of blood obtained from a peripheral vein, buffy-coat smears, or bone marrow evaluation. Common clinical signs included fever, cachexia, ocular discharge, pain, stiffness, and paresis. Laboratory abnormalities included marked leukocytosis, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, mild anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and high alkaline phosphatase activity. Periosteal bone proliferation was evident radiographically in 18 of 22 dogs. Renal lesions included amyloidosis (1 dog), interstitial nephritis (3), and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (4). Treatment with the anticoccidial drug toltrazuril, despite an initial favorable response, failed to prevent relapse in all but 3 of 21 treated dogs. Mean survival time was 12.6 ± 2.2 months, with a mean time of remission before recurrence of clinical signs of 6 months.

Clinical Implications—

H canis infection in dogs can be associated with a distinct clinical syndrome that involves chronic myositis, debilitation, and death. The dogs of this report represent the first substantial number of domestic dogs naturally infected with H canis in the United States outside of the Texas Gulf Coast. Hepatozoon canis appears to be a serious pathogen in the United States that is becoming more widespread geographically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:916–922)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine whether 2- or 3-times-daily application of topical ophthalmic 0.005% latanoprost solution is more effective at lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal dogs.

ANIMALS 9 clinically normal dogs.

PROCEDURES For each dog, I drop of latanoprost 0.005% solution was applied to 1 eye every 8 or 12 hours each day for 5 days; the contralateral eye received topical ophthalmic treatment with 1 drop of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution at the times of latanoprost application. Ocular examinations of both eyes were performed every 6 hours starting 48 hours prior to and ending 42 hours after the treatment period. Following a 5-week washout interval, the procedures were repeated but the previously latanoprost-treated eye of each dog received latanoprost application at the alternate frequency.

RESULTS Mean ± SD IOP reduction in the latanoprost-treated eyes was 31 ± 6.9% with 2-times-daily application and 33 ± 8.2% with 3-times-daily application. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in IOP with contributions by treatment (2 or 3 times daily), time of day (diurnal variation), and individual dog. The maximum mean daily IOP reduction in latanoprost-treated eyes was detected on day 3 of latanoprost treatment in each group. Eyes treated 3 times daily had significantly smaller pupil diameter and greater conjunctival hyperemia than eyes treated 2 times daily.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The clinical importance of the ocular hypotensive effects of 3-times-daily topical ophthalmic application of 0.005% latanoprost solution in dogs with glaucoma warrants investigation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research